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2012-03-19 23:33:30
Fenton software hardware ACC120

Chapter 8 vocabulary
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  1. accelerated graphics port (AGP)
    High-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer's motherboard, primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. Since 2004 AGP has been progressively phased out in favor of PCI Express (PCIe). By mid-2009 PCIe cards dominated the market; AGP cards and motherboards were still produced, but OEM driver support was minimal.
  2. bus mastering
    Circuitry allowing devices to avoid conflicts on the external data bus.
  3. COM ports
    Serial communications ports available on your computer. When used as a program extension,.COM indicates an executable program file limited to 64 KB.
  4. device driver
    Program used by the operating system to control communications between the computer and peripherals.
  5. direct memory access (DMA)
    Technique that some PC hardware devices use to transfer data to and from the memory without using the CPU.
  6. DMA controller
    Resides between the RAM and the devices and handles DMA requests.
  7. expansion bus crystal
    Controls the speed of the expansion bus.
  8. expansion bus
    Set of wires going to the CPU, governed by the expansion bus crystal, directly connected to expansion slots of varying types (PCI, AGP, PCIe, etc.). Depending on the type of slots, the expansion bus runs
  9. expansion slots
    Connectors on a motherboard that enable users to add optional components to a system. (See also AGP and PCI.)
  10. hexadecimal
    Base-16 numbering system using 10 digits (0 through 9) and six letters (A through F). In the computer world, shorthand way to write binary numbers by substituting one hex digit for a four-digit binary number (e.g., hex 9 = binary 1001).
  11. I/O address
    On x86-based PCs, a number used to identify a peripheral device, such as a disk, sound card or serial port. The address, which is expressed as a hex number (1F0, 37F, etc.), must be unique. Until the late 1990s, controller cards typically contained a small range of selectable addresses to avoid conflicts with other devices. However, the Plug and Play feature, introduced with Windows 95, resolved conflicts automatically.
  12. I/O addressing
    Using the address bus to talk to system devices.
  13. I/O advanced programmable interrupt controller (IOAPIC)
    Typically located in the Southbridge, the IOAPIC acts as the traffic cop for interrupt requests to the CPU.
  14. I/O base address
    In the x86 architecture, an input/output base address is a base address of an I/O port. In other words, this is the first address of a range of consecutive I/O port addresses that device uses.
  15. Industry Standard Architecture (ISA)
    Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is a computer bus standard for IBM PC compatible computers introduced with the IBM Personal Computer to support its Intel 8088 microprocessor's 8-bit external data bus and extended to 16 bits for the IBM Personal Computer/AT's Intel 80286 processor.
  16. interrupt request (IRQ)
    Signal from a hardware device, such as a modem or a mouse, indicating that it needs the CPU's attention. In PCs, IRQs are sent along specific IRQ channels associated with a particular device. IRQ conflicts were a common problem in the past when adding expansion boards, but the plug-and-play specification has removed this headache in most cases.
  17. interruption
    Suspension of a process, such as the execution of a computer program, caused by an event external to the computer and performed in such a way that the process can be resumed. Events of this kind include sensors monitoring laboratory equipment or a user pressing an interrupt key.
  18. LPT ports
    Commonly referred to as a printer port; usually associated with a local parallel port.
  19. memory addressing
    Taking memory address from system RAM and using it to address nonsystem RAM or ROM so the CPU can access it.
  20. Microsoft Windows Logo Program
    Testing program for hardware manufacturers, designed to ensure compatibility with the Windows OS.
  21. PC bus
    Original 8-bit expansion bus developed by IBM for PCs; ran at a top speed of 4.77 MHz. Also known as the XT bus.
  22. PCI Express (PCIe)
    Serialized successor to PCI and AGP, which uses the concept of individual data paths called lanes. May use any number of lanes, although1072
  23. PCI Extended (PCI-X)
    Enhanced version of PCI, 64 bits wide. Typically seen in servers and high-end systems.
  24. peripheral component interconnect (PCI)
    Design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard, which enables system components to be added to the computer. Local bus standard, meaning that devices added to a computer through this port will use the processor at the motherboard's full speed (up to 33 MHz) rather than at the slower 8 MHz speed of the regular bus. Moves data 32 or 64 bits at a time rather than the 8 or 16 bits the older ISA buses supported.
  25. system resources
    In classic terms, the I/O addresses, IRQs, DMA channels, and memory addresses. Also refers to other computer essentials such as hard drive space, system RAM, and processor speed.
  26. unsigned driver
    Driver that has not gone through the Windows Hardware Quality Labs or Microsoft Windows Logo Program to ensure compatibility.
  27. Windows Hardware Quality Labs (WHQL)
    Windows Hardware Quality Labs