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What are the functions of the pulmonary system?
- Gas Exchange
- Acid-Balance of the body
What vitamins and minerals can have an effect on the malnutrition of the pulmonary system?
- Vitamin C- Collagen formation to support connective tissue
- Vitamin A- Mucus formation
- PRO- Antibody production
- Zinc- Immunity
- Vitamin B6- PRO and antibody production
- decreases surfactant
- pulmonary edema
- decreased oxygen carrying capacity of blood
- decline in muscle mass of lungs
What are the normal blood gas levels?
- Partial pressure of Oxygen (PaO2): 75-100 mmHg
- Partial pressure of PaCO2: 35-45 mmHg
- pH: 7.35-7.45
- O2Sat: 94-100%
- HCO3: 22-26mEq/L
What are the clinical symptoms of pulmonary disease?
- Early satiety
- Wt loss
- Dyspnea during eating
What is COPD?
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
- The presence of chronic bronchitis or emphyesema leading to airway obstruction
What is Emphysema?
A condition of the lung characterized by abnormal permanent enlargement of alveoli accompanied by destruction of their walls with out obvious fibrosis
What is bronchitis?
Inflammation and eventual scarring of the lining of the bronchial tubes; restricted airflow, excessive production, persistent cough
What is indirect calorimetry?
- Measure of O/Co2 exchange
- 1 L of O burn $ kcals
- More accurate assessment that Harris Benedict
What is the nutrition care for COPD?
- Na and fluid restriction
- Maintenance of acceptable weight and height
- Energy requirements may need more than 125-150% greater than BEE
- Altered taste perception
- Sufficient PRO to maintain ling and muscle strength and immune function
- A balanced ratio of PRO with fat and CHO is important because of respiratory quotient
What is the Glucose, Protein, and Triglyceride oxidation of the Respiratory Quotient?
- Gluc: RQ 1
- PRO: .8
- Fat: .7
- The lower the RQ the less CO2 they have to expire
When does respiratory acidosis occur?
When Co2 accumulates
What are the MNT for a pt with COPD?
- Kcal/kg of 25-30 per day
- Protein 15-20% of calories
- Lipid 30-40%
- CHO: 40-55% of calories
- significant relationship with vitamin C and pulmonary function
- Magnesium is crucial for lung function
- Limitation on gas forming foods
What is Dyspnea?
Shortness of Breath
What is Orthopnea?
Discomfort breathing, esp. when they lay flat
What is Pneumothorax?
Presence of air or gas in lungs
What is Endotracheal intubation?
A procedure by which a tube is inserted through the mouth down into the trachea (the large airway from the mouth to the lungs)
What is Cyanosis?
The appearance of a blue or purple coloration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface being low on oxygen.