CHEM 1411

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  1. Chapter 5. Thermochemistry

    5.1 The Nature of Energy
    • Thermodynamics is the study of energy and its transformations.
    • Thermochemistry is the study of the relationships between chemical reactions and energy changes involving heat.
  2. Definitions:
    • • Energy is the capacity to do work or to transfer heat.
    • • Work is energy used to cause an object with mass to move.
    • w = F × d
    • • Heat is the energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase.
    • • A force is any kind of push or pull exerted on an object.
    • • The most familiar force is the pull of gravity.
  3. Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
    • Kinetic energy is the energy of motion:
    • Potential energy is the energy an object possesses by virtue of its position or composition.
    • Electrostatic energy is an example.
    • It arises from interactions between charged particles.
    • Potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy.
  4. System and Surroundings
    • • A system is the part of the universe we are interested in studying.
    • • Surroundings are the rest of the universe (i.e., the surroundings are the portions of the universe that are not involved in the system).
    • • Example: If we are interested in the interaction between hydrogen and oxygen in a cylinder, then the H2 and O2 in the cylinder form a system.
  5. Transferring Energy: Work and Heat
    • From physics:
    • Force is a push or pull exerted on an object.
    • Work is the energy used to move an object against a force.
  6. 5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics
    • • The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
    • • The first law of thermodynamics is the law of conservation of energy.
    • • That is, the energy of system + surroundings is constant.
    • • Thus, any energy transferred from a system must be transferred to the surroundings (and vice

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CHEM 1411
2012-03-20 05:00:06

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