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Name the 3 main criteria of soup
- 1. Properly made stock
- 2. Made in harmony with whole menu
- 3. Gives a first impression
What is consomme?
Concentrated, thin, clear soup
What is a consomme made of?
Beef, game, poultry, or fish stock. Broth is enriched and made stronger flavor
What is a clarification?
Stock is mixed with clarification mixture and brought to a simmer; raft is made from egg whie, ground meat and mirepoix coagulate and rises to the tope of the stock (acts as a filter); stock should only simmer; blood in the meat acts as clarifying agent.
How are flavor and color influenced in thin soups?
- 1. Egg whites help clarify and also absorb flavor
- 2. Vegetables and meat givel flavor and color
- 3. Madeira or shaerry can be added just befor serving (embellishment)
- 4. Color of consomme depends on color of broth
How do you garnish thin/clear soups?
Always added just before serving; should never be larger than bouillion spoon; cheese straws, wafers, small puff, etc.
1. What is an Essence?
- It is a consomme with a special flavor
- Ex: herbs, plants, vegetables, fungus (celery, tarragon, truffles, tomatoes)
- Other ingredients: wild duck, partridge, quail, pheasant. Fortified wines can be added last minute
How do you define Jellied Soups?
Extra bones are used to get a gel affect; if stock is not strong enough you can add unflavored gelatin. Usually served cold during summer months.
What is broth or bouillon?
Meat and vegatables are cooked in one pot.
How are broths/bouillions flavored?
- Sherry, madeira, lemon, hot pepper sauce, red wine (beef), white wine (veal)
- Cooked rice or pasta can be added
Do vegetable/legumes/seed puress need a thickening agent added?
What is a coulis?
A puree of poultry, game, fish, shellfish, fruits, non-farinaceour vegetables
What is a bisque?
- 1. Traditional the base is shellfish
- 2. Rice or crust of bread fried in butter used as thickener
- 3. Garnished with items present in base
- 4. Accompanied by fried croutons
What is Veloute?
A smooth creamy soup with the thickness of syrup
What are the 3 types of veloutes?
- 1. A puree of hte main flavor/ingredients with a veloute sauce
- 2. An ordinary meat, poultry, game, vegetable, or fish veloute
- 3. A liaison composed of egg yold and cream
What is used to make cream soup?
How do you correct the consistency of a cream soup?
Use milk or cream
Does a cream soup require an egg yolk liaison?
How are cream soups finished?
With heavy cream, instead of butter
How do you prevent cream soups from curdling?
- 1. Thicken milk before adding to soup
- 2. Cook vegetables to remove acidity & neutralizes the enzymes
- 3. Always boil the milk or cream before adding to hot soups, never after
What is a Potage?
How do you make a potage?
Cut vegetables into smaller shapes and sizes; braise the vegetables in butter to help expel moisture and acidity
What is Choweder?
A chunky, hearty soup, usually containg milk/cream and potatoes
What are some garnishes for soup?
The main ingredient, cut vegetalbe, meat, poultyr; croutes or croutons; eggs/royale; pasta/rice
What is a quenelle?
A quenelle is mixture of creamed fish, chicken, or meat, sometimes combined with breadcrumbs, with a light egg binding. Usually egg/oval shaped
What are some toppings for soup?
Chopped parsley, fine herbs, chives, chervil, sliced nuts, shredded coconut, sour or whipped cream. Should not sink, must compliment the soup flavor
African word for okra. Okra is used to thicken soup
Define Kohl Suppe?
Cabbage soup from austria
Define Bouillabaise Marseillaise
French fish and shellfish stew
Greek soup with rice, meat broth, egg & fresh lemon juice
Define Gulva's Leves
Hungarian soup (goulash) beef brisket, paprika, onion, & potatoes
Indian cream of curry soup
Thick Italian soup made with any vegetables available at the market
Italian soup with bread crumbs, parmesan cheese, egg, and consomme
Russian soup of beets, leeks, cabbage, duck, sausage, & sour cream
Defin Scotch Mutton Broth
Scottish soup of vegetables, mutton & barley
What is Chilled Vichvssoise?
A cold potatoe leek soup
What is Gaspacho?
A cold spanish soup with tomatoes cucumbers, green and red peppers
Are fruit soups hot or cold?
What is the compostion of a salad?
- 1. Base
- 2. Body
- 3. Dressing
- 4. Garnish
What is the base of a salad?
What is the Body of a salad?
The main ingredients
What is the Dressing of a salad?
It enhances and adds flavor to the body of a salad
What does a garnish do for a salad?
Adds form, color, and texture
What is a simple salad?
A variety of one or more greans, mild dressings, usually as a course before or after the entree
What is mixed salad?
Compose of cooke or raw vegetables and/or proteins either marinated or served with a complementary dressing. Ususally used as appetizers, accompaniment, or garnish, or as the salad course.
What is a combination salad?
The two or more various salads are presented separately or on the same plate. Any kind of dressing used. Usually served as an entree.
What is a composed salad?
The many different ingredients are laid down on a platter in small groups to creat a desing. Fruit platters or crudite.
When do you dress a sald?
Light and leafy vegetables should be dressed just prior to service
What type of dish do you serve salad on?
A cold dish, that is not overcrowded
Why is flavor important in salads?
well balance and part of the overall meal
What should the color of salad be like?
Combine to provide an appetizing, pleasing effect on the eye
How should texture of a salad be?
It should be pleasing and interesting to the mouth
What are the 5 things to remember when plating salad?
- 1. use proper sized plates
- 2. Keep it simple
- 3. creat a nice flow
- 4.main body should be the focal point
- 5.use garnish to add color and texture
What type of vegetable salads are there?
- 1. Green with fresh vegetables
- 2. Marinated vegetable salads
What are 3 things to remember when preparing salads?
- 1. Proper recieving
- 2. Storage
- 3. Handling
How do you clean prodcut for salads?
Wash with water (in or under); soak in water to rejuvenate; dry with a paper towl, air drying, or spinning
What is the proper size for salad pieces?
- 1. Main body: bite size pieces
- 2. Garnishes: shredded, grated, choped, slices
What are proper dressing amounts?
- 1. Green leaf types: don not let stand too long with dressing
- 2. SOlid vegetable types: can stand for long marinating periods and needs more dressings than leafy salads
What is the proper temperature for salad prep and storage?
cold, also wash with cold water
How do you select product for salads?
Skill level of staff, equipment, time available, and goals of operation
Define Pasta Salads
Dried, extruded pasta, cooked, dressed, served at room temp, aromatic vegetables and herbs
Guidlines for making a rice/legume salad
- 1. Do not over cook rice
- 2. Beans should be cooked softer, harden as they get cold
- 3. Proper aromatic vegetables, herbs
- 4. Serve slightly warm
- 5. Temperture should reflect ingredients
What are the 4 types of cold sauces?
- 1. basic french
- 2. mayonnaise based
- 3. boiled dressing
- 4. specialty sauces
How is a basic french dressing made?
- Made from vinegar, oil, salt, and pepper
- 3:1 ratio; changes on intensity of ingredients
- Temporary emulsified
- Can be permanately emulsified by adding emulsifiers: egg, dry mustard, polysaccharides, protiens, etc.
How do you make a mayonnaise based dressing?
- Made with egg yolk, oil, acid, and seasonings
- Stable emulsion: lecithin in the egg yolk acts as emulsifier
- Commercially prepared more stable
How do you make a boiled dressing?
- Starch thickend sauce
- Similar to mayonnaise, but less fat
- Made with flour or starch, oil, acid, egg yolk, milk, and seasoning
- Used in replacement of mayonnaise
- Does not break down like mayonnaise
What is cocktail sauce?
Tomato and horseradish sauce
What is cumberland sauce:
Red currant jelly, port wine, shallot, orange & lemon zest, dry mustard and cayanne
What is mint sauce?
Mint leaves, sugar, and vinegar
What is a sour cream based sauce?
Add fruits or vegetable puree to sour cream
What are yogurt based sauces?
low fat or non fat yogurs can be used to lower the fat contents in dressing
What factors lead to rancidity of oils?
- Air, tempurature, light
- Keep in an air tight, dark container, in a cool place
What types of oils are used to make cold sauces?
- 1. All purpose oil
- 2. Flavored oil
- 3. Hydrogenated oil: add hydrogen, crisco
- 4. Winterized oil: removes waxes