WWI terms edited.txt

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WWI terms edited.txt
2012-03-20 09:22:35

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  1. Georges Clemenceau
    • French Prime Minister during the last half of the war
    • played an important role in persuading the British to accept the appointment of Ferdinand Foch as supreme Allied commander; pursued war until the end of WWI
    • led France in designing Treaty of Versailles at PPC
    • wanted strictest punishment for Germany: complete disarmament and severe reparations
    • Warned further conflicts with Germany
  2. Marshall Foch(Ferdinand Foch)
    • Leader of the victory at 1st Battle of Marne
    • Ultimately the supreme commander of of Allied Armies
    • Control over Western Front, played decisive role in halting renewed German advance (great push of spring 1918) in 2nd Battle of Marne
    • Planned the ��grand offensive�� that led to the defeat of Germany
    • Major advisory role at PPC, also attempting for strictest punishment for Germany
  3. Woodrow Wilson
    • President of USA during WWI
    • Offered to be a mediator but often rejected, kept USA out of the war until late in the war
    • Declared war against Germany while insisting its position as an associated power rather than member of the Allies
    • Author of Fourteen points at Versailles, Brought in League of Nations to establish future peace (14 points: ranged from prohibition of secret treaties to the creation of independent Poland with access to sea)
  4. David Lloyd-George
    • Became British Prime Minister half way through the war, caused a split in the party
    • First opposed to British going to war, then soon emerged to support escalating war for a quick victory
    • Combated the growing German submarine menace, which in early 1917 threatened to starve Britain into submission. Achieved this by forcing the adoption of the convoy system upon a reluctant Admiralty
    • Wanted more lenient punishments for Germany to save Euro economy, claiming France��s punishment was too Bolveshism
    • Moderate influence on harsh demands of France and idealistic of US, shaped the final agreement
  5. Vittorio Orlando
    • Italy's prime minister, succeeded after humiliation in Caporetto in 1917
    • At PPC, attempted to gain territorial wins from being on winning side, control of Adriatic (due to his inability to speak English and his weak political position, he failed to play a dominant role) did not sign the treaty
    • His failure at Versailles allowed for him to be succeeded, led to Mussolini gaining power
  6. Tsar Nicholas II
    • Dissatisfied with the army's conduct of the war, Nicholas took personal command in September 1915
    • Its continued failure reflected directly upon the Tsar himself rather than the army command. Nicholas's popularity dwindled.
    • Could not see that the dynasty was in decline; domestic issues and control of the capital were left with his wife Alexandra, whose relationship with Rasputin, and her German background, further discredited the dynasty's authority.
    • Russian revolution resulted in Russia��s early withdrawal out of the war
    • end of Russian monarchy, Russia��s last emperor
  7. Gen. Pavel Rennenkampf
    • Russian General who was in charge of 1st army
    • Led during Battle of Tannenburg
    • Conflict/inability to cooperate with Samsonov = removed from command
    • Failure at 1st Masurian Lakes led to his dismissal
  8. Gen. Alexander Samsonov
    • Russian General, commander of 2nd army
    • During Battle of Tannenburg, didn't coordinate w/ 1st army and led to disastrous result due to being surrounded
    • Resulted in the loss of Tannenburg, committed suicide
  9. Gen. Alexei Brusilov
    • One of most brilliant Russian Generals
    • One of the few with early Russian successes
    • 1916 � Brusilov offense resulted in pressure off Italian front -> demolished Austrian front (southwest front pushed more than 30km along 400km line)
    • Harboured Austrian hopes for victory in East -> Romania joined war
    • Resp. for summer offensive
    • Provided moral support with his victories
    • Argued for the Tsar�s abdication
  10. Kaiser Wilhelm II
    • German's last Kaiser, abdicated
    • Started naval race to develop German's navy
    • Incited A-H to attack Serbia, sanctioned AH to use force against Serbia (blank cheque)
    • Seems to not have foreseen effects of AH attacking Serbia, bringing in Russia, France, and Britain into the war
    • Commander in Chief of German army throughout the war, essentially a figure head
  11. Field Marshall von Hindenburg
    • Germany's most famous army commander
    • Famed victories against Russian: Tannenburg & Masurian lakes, became national hero
    • Then given sole command of Eastern Front
    • Elected President, persuaded Kaiser to abdicate, appointed Hitler
  12. Erich Ludendorf
    • Assisted with tuning of the Schlieffen Plan prior to WWI
    • Close to Hindenburg -> helped victories at Tannenburg & Masurian Lakes
    • German General
    • Along with Hindenburg, created what was effectively a military-industrial dictatorship, the Third Supreme Command, largely relegating the Kaiser, Wilhelm II, to a peripheral role.�
    • Supported unrestricted sub. Warfare, which ultimately brought US into the war
    • Played a key role in Brest-Litovsk treaty, at great cost of Russia
  13. Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    • Heir to A-H throne
    • Assasinated -> triggering incident for WW1, provided excuse for AH to attack Serbia, escalating tension between European powers
    • Attempted to bring equal rights to slavs by replacing Austro-Hungarian dualism with 'Trialism�
  14. Gavrilo Princip
    • Part of the Black Hand nationalist group
    • Assasinated Ferdinand
    • Triggered incident for WW1, provided excuse for AH to attack Serbia, escalating tension between European powers
  15. Douglas Haig
    • General in British army, controversial general
    • Led Somme Offensive & (3rd Ypres)Passcendaele;
    • Somme failure and some success. Result with high casualties
    • Managed Western front
    • Criticized for tactics having some deep flaws
  16. Arthur Currie
    • Canadian army commander
    • Handled gas attack at Ypres
    • Largely responsible for the planning and execution of the success assault against Vimy Ridge
    • Participated in all major activity w/ Canadians
  17. Newfoundland Regiment
    • Newfoundland troops
    • Fought at Somme Bravely & Gallipoli
    • On the side of the Allied side
  18. Lawrence of Arabia
    • Welsh intelligence officer that worked with Arabs
    • Aided British campaign in Middle East
    • Encouraged Arab forces to aid British
    • Vital part to defeating Turkey
  19. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
    • First Turkish President(Father of Turks)
    • Determination at Gallipoli won him admiration back home
    • Succeeded in Defense of Dardanelles, defeated Allied forces
    • Led Turkey in Turkish War of Independence against Allied imposing peace settlements and trying to split up the Ottoman empire
  20. Enver Pasha
    • Minister of War for Turkey, Ottoman military officer, led ottomans in WWI
    • Instrumental in Turkey on Central powers side
    • Allowed German warship to stay in Dardanelles
    • Conducted secret treaties with Russian and Germany for military alliances
    • Contributed to Ottoman Empire joining war on Central Powers side �donation� of the ships he allowed into Ottoman Empire that was neutral at the time
  21. Triple Entente
    • Between Britain (and her colonies), France, Russia
    • Opposed the triple alliance (Germany, AH, Italy)
    • To settle previous disputes between nations
    • Not a military agreement (informal alliance) -> encourage co-op if threat is perceived
    • Only signed formal military alliance after war broke out
    • Factor of outbreak of global war
    • Eventually saw withdrawal from Russia
  22. Triple Alliance
    • Between Germany, A-H, Italy
    • Political agreement/Military Agreement/mutual defence
    • Each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any other great powers, or for Germany and Italy, an attack by France alone. Defensive alliance
  23. Anglo-Japanese Treaty
    • Treaty b/twn Britain and japan
    • Aimed at Russia/to protect their interest in Manchuria
    • The other would stay neutral if engaged in conflict with another country
    • Military Alliance iff at war with 2/more enemies
    • Strengthened Japan to challenge Russia in Russo-Japanese war
    • Japan used it to declare war on Germany in WWI on the Allied side, pursuit of more land
  24. Secret Treaties
    • Italy: Treaty w/ France, neutral if Germany attacks France
    • Italy: Treaty of London; Britain offered territory for Italy to open another front
    • A-H: w/ Romania that it must be allied with AH if AH was attacked
    • Ententes: Bucharest treaty with Romania, secret territorial promises against AH
    • Increased tension between countries
  25. Militarism
    • Political/social emphasis on military matters = increase $
    • Naval Arms race b/twm Ger & Br
    • Previously conflict 1800's = building of large armies
    • Increased discord b/twn countries -> resulted in the continuous building of armies and a great war
  26. Alliances
    • Triple Alliance and Triple Entente increased tensions
    • Cause of Global War
    • A chain effect resulted from a conflict, pulling everyone into the war
  27. Imperialism
    • Britain was strongest empire -> No land left for latecomer Germany
    • 1904 Fr & Br acknowledged territories
    • Triple entente was formed to protect territories -> mutually acknowledge
    • Conflicts as Germany tried to gain territory
    • A factor of starting the war
  28. Nationalism
    • Emotional attachment to cultural/territorial group, desire for independence
    • Princip assassinated Archduke due to Serbian nationalism -> direct cause of WWI
    • Ger. wanted to be Global Power, they provoked war
  29. Eastern Front
    • Major deaths 3mil +, large casualties
    • Geographic features had drastic effects on nature of the warfare
    • Much more fluid than Western front, trenches never truly developed
    • Greater length front -> low density of soldier -> lines were easier to break
    • Sparse communication made it hard to defend ruptures in line and mount rapid encounter -> defending side was not at advantage
    • All major participants lost form of government (Russia collapsed)
    • Mostly fought by Russians
    • Germany well trained
  30. Western Front
    • Large casualties -> 7 million + overall
    • Trench warfare, not a short sweet victory
    • Introduction of new technology, such as poisonous gas, aircrafts and tanks
    • Location: mostly Belgium and France
    • Mostly fought by French, Britain
    • Final success on Western front (after Spring Offensives failed) resulted in loss of Germany in the war and the consequences and Treaties
  31. Winter War
    • Eastern Front
    • AH appeals to Germany to force Russians off Carpathian Mts.
    • However, AH forces failed and they lose Dukla pass (route into Hungarian planes) but bad weather disallows Russian advantage
    • Prepared the way for the great battle of Gorlice-Tarnow
  32. White Russian vs. Reds
    • Whites: supported Monarchy, landowners, generals, pro-Tsarist
    • Reds: Communists, pro-Bolshevik, new movement
    • Russian Revolution led to withdrawal of Russia fr WW1 and Brest-Litovsk treaty
    • Brest-Litovsk made the west very anti-Lenin, who was a leader of the Bolsheviks, �whites� received help from Allied forces
    • The CHECHA a secret police force organized the Red Terror - units would go into the countryside and hunt, beat, kill, torture anyone they thought was supporting the whites
    • War communism kept the Red Army fully supplied
  33. Hague Convention
    • Peace convention held in Hague
    • purpose: formal laws for war and war crimes, reasons to declare war, POW rights, weapons usage, forbid acts such as poisonous gas, injuring enemy who has surrendered, make improper use of flag of truce; spies, capitulation, armistice
    • Rules broken in WW1: Zeppelins, gas
  34. Total War
    • A war in which a belligerent engages in the complete mobilization of fully available resources and population
    • All society (civilian & military) involved and financial investments
    • WW1 = Total War
    • Almost the whole Europe mobilized to wage WWI, men were removed from production to military, and women replaced men on production line; also includes rationing and propaganda
  35. No Man's land
    • Artillery shelled land full of pits, Unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty, part of WWI
    • Muddy field between opposing trenches, often very long and heavily defended by machine guns, mortars, artillery and riflemen, riddled with barbed wire and land mines, as well as corpse
    • Soldiers spent most of time in trenches, but forced to cross no man�s land when advancing
  36. Blank Cheque
    • Kaiser's msg to A-H = offering support for war on Serbia
    • A guarantee of almost unconditional support
    • Alleviated tensions
    • Made war inevitable as Germany was seeking a war
    • Started the chain effect of a total war in Europe
  37. Schlieffen Plan
    • Plan by Ger. to invade through Belgium, overtake France then take out Russia to ensure victory and avoid battling on 2 front
    • Moltke made mofification to the plan, such as pulling some forces away from France and to not enter through Nertherlands
    • The plan failed and resulted in no quick end of war
    • Due to: Unexpected Belgian resistance and strength British-Belgian alliance, effectiveness of BEF, speed of Russian mobilization, French railway system, impractible plan, and Moltke�s changes
    • Failure caused Germany to fight on 2 fronts and brought Britain into the war
    • Unflexible plan
  38. Austrian Ultimatum
    • Ultimatum to Serbia after assassin.
    • Designed so that accepting would result in reduction of Serbian independence and rejection meaning war
    • Serbia accepted all but 2 terms, allowing Austrian officials into Serbia to search for suspects and punish them w/o Serbian contribution
    • Used as an excuse to declare war after Serbia
    • Serbia�s reply to the ultimatum resulted in Austrians declaring war
  39. Treaty Brest-Litovsk
    • 1917 Between Germany & Russia allowing Russian to back out of WW1
    • Lost Riga, Lithuania, Livonia, Estonia w/ coal & iron allowing Ger. to use
    • Anulled with Treaty of Versailles
    • Allowed Bolsheviks concentrate on inner turmoil, relieved from WWI to fight in civil war
    • Allowed Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Poland to become independent sovereign states
  40. Treaty of Rapallo
    • 1922 b/twn Ger & USSR to meet economic needs of both countries
    • allowed Germany to produce forbid weapons from Treaty of Versailles in USSR(secret agreement)
    • cancelled prewar debts/claims
    • caused more tension between allies & Germany
  41. Treaty of St.Germaine
    • 1919 b/twn Austria & Allies
    • formally dissolved A-H empire
    • recognized individually into Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia
    • land was also given to Italy
    • Austria was not allowed to politically and economically unite with Germany unless League of Nations agreed to it
    • reduced power of A-H
  42. Treaty of Versailles
    • 1919 signed between Germany and Allied forces
    • Alsace-Lorraine, Eastern Prussia, and other land were taken from Germany
    • League of Nations also took control of Germany�s overseas colonies
    • Germany had to return Russia land taken in Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, some made into new states
    • Military and warfare technology were limited
    • Germany�s economic potential was kept to a minimum
    • Germany had to accept full responsibility for war and war damage
    • League of Nations was introduced to keep world peace
  43. War Guilt Clause
    • Guilt clause in treaty of Versailles
    • Lays sole responsibility for the war on Germany and allies, to account for all damage to civilian populations of the Allies
    • Money was supposed to be used for reparations, allies wanted a blank cheque, amount was too huge for Germany to pay
    • One of the causes that led to rise of National Socialism in Germany
    • Resentment within Germany is a factor that contributed to WW2
  44. Reparations
    • Payments and transfers of property/equipment paid to winners of WW1 from Germany
    • Crippled Germany economy
    • Caused resentment from Germany
    • 6,600 million pounds was due from Germany for repairing war damages of Allies
  45. Creeping Barrage
    • Slow artillery = defensive curtain for infantry, a curtain just ahead of advancing troops
    • British. 1916 Battle of Somme used perfectly
    • Required very careful planning by both artillery and infantry commander
    • Casualties due to bad timing as own troops can be caught by barrage
    • 2nd battle of Aisne failed to use this and caused mutiny in French army
  46. Dreadnought
    • Battleship built by British
    • Little participation in war
    • Started naval race between Britain and Germany
    • Pressure on Britain (as they did not want to withdraw from Mediterranean) was to make arrangement with France
  47. U-Boat
    • German submarine, attacked merchant ships used in economic warfare (commerce raiding)
    • Used to enforce naval blockade against enemy shipping
    • Primary targets were convoys from Canada, British Empire and US to Britain
    • In Gallipoli, Germany used U-boats to prevent close support of Allied troops
    • Unrestricted sub. Warfare was initially successful, sinking major Britain bound-shipping
    • 1915 Sinking of the Lusitania galvanized American opinion against Germany policy of unrestricted submarine warfare -> played a role in US�s later entry into WWI in 1917
  48. Airplane/synchronized fire
    • Fokker perfected a machine gun that would synchronize firing with rotation of the propeller
    • Allowed such airplanes to roam unopposed for a while
    • Started War in Air
    • Allied pilots found themselves helpless against such planes
    • French bombing missions were halted and British pilots plummeted
    • Capturing a lost plane allowed Allied forces to copy and beginning 1916 reign over the skies
  49. Flexible infantry units
  50. Rehearsal
    • Planning and practiing before a battle
    • Vimy Ridge was well planned and allowed Allied forces to success
    • Brusilov's offensive
    • Led to success
  51. Blockade
    • Efforts of Allied Powers, with larger fleets and surrounding position; obstruction preventing ships from leaving/transporting to Central Powers
    • Naval blockade used by Britain in NOrth sea
    • Crippled Ger. economy = food shortages
    • Made a large contribution to outcome of war: shortage of vital raw materials, fertilisers -> shortage of food, causing lots of riots
    • Maintained for 8 months after Armistice in November 1918 to force Germany to sign Treaty of Versailles (Germany had lost Poland and Ukraine by renouncing Treaty of Brest-Litovsk)
  52. Torpedo
    • Widely used self-propelled underwater projectile that explodes
    • Ger. u-boats targeted merchant shipsm disrupted supply lines to Britain
    • Aided in sinking of boats for both sides, both merchant and submarines
  53. Trench Warfare
    • War of attrition, live/fight in trenches
    • Much of western front
    • Since 1914, German and Allied armies produced matching pair of trench lines from Swiss border to south of Belgium
    • Slow war that dragged out, deadlocked struggle between equals
    • Prevailed in Western front from 1914 until Spring Offensives
  54. Machine Gun
    • Gun tt fires quickly/repeatedly
    • New technology introduced to WWI, saw its first major use
    • Combined with wire entanglements, machine guns earned fearsome reputation
    • Caused a lot of casualties in trench warfare
    • Mounted to aircrafts for the 1st time in WWI
    • Soldiers killed before out of trenches
    • Battle of Somme, British troops were killed/forced back to trenches due to German machine guns
  55. Tank
    • First used by Britain at Battle of Somme -> mixed but still impressive results as many broke down, 1/3 succeeded in breaking through
    • Were rushed into combat before mature enough
    • Large armoured car, supposedly used to break stalemate of trench warfare
    • Beginning of improvement of new technology -> new era of warfare
    • Aided with ending the horrors of trench warfare, brought back some mobility to the Western Front
  56. Balloon
    • Aerial platforms for intelligence gathering, locating submarines and artillery spotting
    • Allowed observation beyond visual range of targets for artillery
    • Allowed artillery to take advantage of increased range
  57. Airship/zeppelin
    • Germans bombed England 1915
    • Fear in citizens & enraged countries
    • Violation of Hague convention
  58. Mustard Gas
    • Violation of Hague convention of war
    • Most widely reported and one of the most effective gas in WWI
    • Delivered in artillery shells and would settled to the ground and remain active
    • Used to harass and disable enemy and pollute battlefield
    • Gas that blistered skins, sore eyes, began to vomit, internal and external bleeding, attacked bronchial tubes -> extremely painful
    • Gas combined with conventional artillery was commonly used to support most attacks in late war
    • Employed mainly on Western front for trench system warfare
    • 1917 used by Germans. at Russians, lack of effective countermeasures resulted in great casualties
    • At the end of the war, Allied forces had caught on to gas while Germans slowed down due to insufficient resources -> led to advantage for Allies
  59. Barbed Wire
    • Spiky metal wire strung up across trenches, used extensively in WWI
    • Slowed down enemy as clothes and equipments got caught
    • Placed infront of trenches to prevent direct charges on men below
    • Salonika (English-France with Serbs) were so fortified -> named Bird cage
  60. Jutland (1916 North Sea)
    • Last and largest naval battle
    • German never regained her naval power again, Britain remained powerful
    • Germany never challenged Britain on high seas again in WWI
    • Allowed Britain navy to be powerful enough to blockage Germany
  61. Somme (1916 French and Belgian border)
    • France and Britain vs Germany
    • battle of Attrition & creeping barrage & introduced tanks
    • divert Germany/relieved France from Verdun
    • Slow br. advance, heavy casualties
    • 90% NFL dead
    • Showed ineffectiveness of frontal assault
  62. Marne(20 miles outside Paris, along Marne river)
    • Ger vs allies
    • Schlieffen plan failed
    • France was almost defeat but was rescued by 6000 reserve infantry from Paris in taxi
    • Prevented quick victory of West, stopped the war of movement which had dominated WWI
    • Brought German advance to halt
    • Start of the trench warfare/battle of attrition as afterwards, both sides dug in
  63. Vimy Ridge (Battle of Arras)(1917 France)
    • Greatest Battle for Canadian, all 4 troops together (huh?)
    • Lots of preplanning: maps, rehearsal, replicas
    • Canadian success = unified Canada and gave Canadians a fearsome reputation
    • Took the Ridge from Germany
    • Only successful offensive in spring of 1917
  64. Verdun (1916 France)
    • Germany vs France
    • Used to "bleed France white"
    • French tactical victory - Symbolic value = fortress,
    • France held Verdun �they shall not pass�
    • Germany failed to capture Verdun or inflict a much higher casualties count on France
    • Verdun represented the horror of war
  65. Ypres (1915 Belgium)
    • First use of Chlorine gas by Germany
    • France gave up line, but Canadians held on until British supports arrived
    • heavy casualties
    • prevent Germany from English Ports
    • Canadians gained their own command structure
  66. Passchendaele (1917 Belgium)
    • Britain�s goals -> break through Flanders and destroy German submarine pens
    • heavy losses for both
    • Liquid mud from raining -> Muddy nightmare
    • Large casualties while neither side gained much
    • Showed futility of sending waves of men against artillery
  67. List battles in Order
    Tannenburg, Masurian, Marne, Dardanelles, Ypres, Gallipoli, Arab Revolt, Somme, Jutland, Palestine, Isonzo, Salonika, Caporetto, Vimy, Passchendaele
  68. Battle of Tannenburg
    • Early in WWI
    • Best German victory on East. Front, famous for rapid movement of German troops by train
    • Huge Russian losses, shocked allies as Russia was expected to be Germany�s primary threat
    • first Defeat of Russ. loss of morale
    • set the stage for the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes
    • Russian forces would not again march on German soil until the end of World War II
    • Hindenburg and Ludendorff were both hailed as heroes
  69. Masurian Lakes
    • Germany�s 2nd victory over Russian
    • Led to Rennekampf�s. withdrawal
    • Fame to Hindenburg + Ludendorf
    • Further lowered morale of Russian
    • Russians lost any threat to Germany Eastern Prussia
  70. Dardanelles (Dardanelles, 1915)
    • Naval battle: wanted access to Black sea to ship supplies to Russia
    • Strait b/twn Europe & Turkey
    • Ottoman Empire had significant victory, and British forces did not continue attacking like Churchill had wanted
    • Failure of the naval assault led to the beginning of the Gallipoli campaign
  71. Gallipoli (Peninsula of Gallipoli, Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916)
    • Continuation of Dardanelle attempt
    • British and France wanted to capture Ottoman capital and secure a sea route to Russia
    • Create another front
    • Ottoman keeps land, major victory by Turks, major failure by Allies
    • Allied evacuated
    • Renewed Turkey�s visions for the empire
    • Failure had significant repercussions in Britain, forced coalition government between liberals and conservative
    • Bulgaria joins Central Powers made Gallipoli untenable for Allied
  72. Salonika (1914-1918)
    • Request by Greek to help Serbs fight against Bulgarian aggression (Greece�s treaty obligation)
    • Barbed wired everything -> Birdcage
    • Allied forces continued to build
    • 1918 Bulgaria surrendered -> was out of war
  73. Isonzo (Isonzo River, 1915-1917)
    • A-H and Germany vs Italy
    • Offensive to improve tactical position, Italy wanted to go across and attack AH from the rear
    • Conflicting
    • A very long battles of Attrition to wear down forces, leading to AH finally breaking down Italian line
  74. Caporetto (12th battle of Isonzo)
    • AH and Germa ny vs Italy
    • Attack of AH in mist broke Italian line 1st day
    • The scale of the Italian defeat at Caporetto led to both a change in government
    • Angered public Italian opinion, pacifist opinions silenced
    • Allied promised support after the defeat at Caporetto
  75. Palestine
    • Ottoman campaigned in Caucasus Mesopotamia
    • British efforts were supported by Jews
    • Suez Canal -> effort resulted in great damage for Turkey
    • Important to keep route between Britain and colonies
    • However, Britain was required to keep forces there although the war, which could have been used in other battles
    • Indirectly led to the failure of Dardanelles and Gallipoli by Allied forces
  76. Arab Revolt
    • Arabs (with support of Britain) vs Ottoman and Germany
    • 1916 Lawrence cultivated relationship w/ Arabs -> Got Arabs to coordinate actions to support British strategy
    • Took Jerusalem
    • Allied offensive at the end knocked Ottoman empire out of war
    • Britain promised unification/support Arab independence
    • Ottoman weakened -> dissolution and downfall