ADV 355 Exam 2

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ATashay
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ADV 355 Exam 2
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2012-03-20 20:36:01
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  1. 1920's Media and Ad Business
    • Advertising replaced seller-buyer relationship
    • Media business= Ad business
  2. 1920: Early Measurement
    • Listener postcards
    • Direct Response
    • -through coupons, contest
    • The Pulse
    • -personal interview
    • -rostered recall
  3. Crossley Ratings (1930)
    • Cooperative Analysis of Boradcasting (CAB)
    • First Audience measure
    • *Next day telephone recalls
    • Confidential report
    • Estimate share among samples
  4. Hooperatings (1938)
    • First independent ratings company
    • Method: telephone coincidental method
    • -Public report
    • -Estimate rating our of all "possible" listeners
    • -Bought CAB, sold to Nielsen in 1950
  5. Differentiated Marketing (1950s)
    • Demographic targeting: reaching women btw 17-40 (intended audience only)
    • Psychograpic targeting: based on lifestyles, more precise group
  6. 1950s- Media Business
    • Proliferation of radio and tv stations
    • -increase in locatl stations
  7. Television
    • Family entertainment medium
    • dominated by top 3
  8. Radio
    • Personalized medium
    • Format-based
    • -music, news, information
    • Out of home consumption
  9. Nielsen- 1950s Measurement
    • -National Audience measure
    • Improved sampling method
    • Speed up the data collection rate
    • Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
    • Diary Service
  10. 24hrs Audimeter
    • -installed in a radio receiver
    • -recod the time the set was on/off
    • -the time of day
    • -the station tuned
  11. Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
    • -ad prices based on audience size
    • -become a standard for ad businesses
  12. American Research Bureau
    • Local Audience measurement
    • first to measure entire coverage area
    • First offical use of diary
  13. Arbitron vs Nielson
    • -local TV markets
    • Arbbitron's Area of Dominant influence (ADI)- best stations
    • Neilsen's Designated Market Area (DMA)
  14. Measurement Issues
    • 1950
    • -refinement of method
    • -geographic/demographic precision
    • -narrowed target segments
    • -congressional investigations

    • 1980
    • -diary controvesy
    • -accuracy in fragmented marketplace
    • -multimedia use
    • -response rate
  15. 1980- Media : Emergence of new media technologies
    • Cable TV
    • Viewing Habits
  16. Cable TV Stations
    • -Audience fragmenation
    • -Multiple consumers (audience, local stations, advertisers)
    • -Narrowcast
    • -Local stations bypass local network
    • -Decline of network TV share
    • -Advertisers can be target based on channel/location
  17. Viewing Habit
    VCRS, remote control
  18. Cable TV Measurements
    • Geography -based
    • Count ratings based on DMA's
  19. Peoplemeter from AGB
    • Automatic record of set tuning
    • Personal information of viewers
  20. Research Process
    • 1. Define the problems and goals
    • 2. find existing information
    • 3. develop research questions
    • 4. select variables and mesurement
    • 5. select research design
    • 6. select data collection technique
    • 7. develop questionnaire and sclae
    • 8. draw a sample
    • 9. gather data
    • 10. code and analyze data
    • 11. write report
  21. 1. Define the Problems and Goals
    • -why you need research
    • -how will you use the results
    • -Problems: situatio-driven
  22. 2. Find existing information
    • online sources
    • public reports
    • scholarly journal
    • magazines/ news articles
  23. 3. Develop reserach questions
    What, why, how, when , who
  24. 4. Select Variables and measurement
    • Variable: Anything that varies > constant : gender, age, fb use, lifestle
    • Variane: extent of variablility
    • Measurement: questionaire, physical mearsurement etc
  25. 5. Select appropriate research design
    • -survey
    • -experiment
    • -content analysis
    • -ratings
    • -foucus groups
    • -in-depth interview
    • -case studies
    • -hybrid
  26. 6. Select data collection technique
    • -personal
    • -mail
    • -phone
    • -online/ email
    • -database generators
    • -online tracking
  27. 7. Develop questionnaire & scale
    • -Open ended
    • -Clsed -ended (single answer)
    • Scale
    • -continuous / non continuous
  28. 8. Draw a sample
    • Sampling ppl: among the target population
    • Sampling content
    • Sample Size
    • -Goal N= N for initial contact x participation rate
    • Fram
    • -roaster
    • -phone
    • -address
  29. 9. Gather Data
    • Timeline
    • Incentives
    • Keep track and monito responses
    • Sample adjustment
    • Follow research ethics
  30. 10.Code & Analyze
    • Enter and clean data
    • Transform data
    • -open ended quesitons
    • Descriptive & Frequency
    • -%, mean, sum
    • Cross Tabulaton
    • Ex: gendr x preferred tv
  31. 11. Write Report
    • Background
    • -Clarify needs and goals
    • -state RQ
    • Method
    • Result
    • -Answer RQ
    • Interpretation
    • -Compare result with previous reports
    • Report possible distorition
    • Limitations
  32. Sampling
    • Taking a proportion of a population as represenative of that population
    • -probability (random) samples
    • -nonprobability samples
  33. Random Sampling
    • Every possible sampe has an "equal probability" of being selected
    • -samples are represenative
  34. Law of Chance
    A mathematical investigation of the probabilities arising from any proposed circumstance of play
  35. Sampling Design
    • 1. Identify the target population
    • -geographic scope, characteristic
    • 2. Select the sampling frame
    • -a list of "almost" all the units in pop. (exhaustive)
    • 3. Decide sampling method
  36. Simple Random Sampling
    • Everyone in your target populaton has a same porbability of being selected
    • -P= sample n / pop N
  37. Systematic Random Sampling
    • List Based
    • 1) calculate sampling interval ( k= N/n)
    • 2) Pick a random starting poitn btw 1 & k
    • 3. select every k unit
  38. Cluster Sampling
    • 1. Divide population into clusters
    • 2. Randomly sample clusters
    • 3. Measure all units within sampled clusers
    • Multistages : repeat 1 &2 mulitple times
  39. Stratified Sampling
    • 1) Group pop into "homogeneous" subsets = strata
    • 2) Randomly select the appropriate n from strat
  40. Random Digit Dialing (RDD)
    • Telephone surveyr
    • -Generating telephone numbers at random
    • -start with listed # in phone book
    • -substitute random #s for last 2 digits
    • Benefit:
    • include unlisted #'s to the sampling frame
  41. Nonrandom Sampling
    • Certain groups within the population have no chance of selection = not representative
    • -Convenience
    • -Judegement
    • -Quote
    • -Snawball
    • -Volunteer
  42. Sources of Error
    • An extent to which the sample failed to accurately represent the population = the amount of inaccuracy
    • -coverage error
    • -sampling error
    • -nonresponse error
  43. Sources of Error: Coverage
    • when the sampling frame does not fully reflect characteristics of the target population
    • Unerrepresented:
    • Cellphone only households
    • new homes
    • homeless
    • hopistal & nursing homes
  44. Sources of Error:Non response
    • When characteristives of respondents are different from non-respondents
    • -response rate (%)
    • -in-tab samples/ initially designated samples
    • Match in-tab samples to Census Data
    • -buffere samples
    • -sample weighting/balancing
  45. Sources of Error: Sampling
    • inherent in the process of samplings
    • Depends on:
    • -complexity of population
    • -sample size
    • -sampling design
  46. Confidence Interval
    • =rating +- sampling error
    • sampling error at the 95% confiidence level = 1.96 square root r(100-r)/n
  47. Sampling Error Terminology
    • Standard Error: standard deviaiton of sampling distribution
    • Sampling Error: possible deivation of your value from the true value
    • Confidence Level: probability (%) that your value falls into a certain range
    • Confidence interval
    • an interval that could include the treu value in a certain confidence level
  48. Nielsen Core Services
    • Audience Research
    • Consumer Research
    • Hybrid: single source measurement
  49. Nielsen: Sampling
    • DMA based
    • Total Telephone Frame (TTF): diary-only market + set tuning meter market
  50. Neilsen Measurement Tool
    • Meters
    • Set meter:
    • -set-tuning only: what channel is being tuned
    • -viewing habits of HHs
    • People Meter
    • -What Channel is being tuned + who is watching
    • -Use buttons or remote control
  51. Meters- Recruits & Installation
    • Pre-pack Letter and Initial Questionnaire
    • -letter
    • -initial questionnaire
    • In Person Visit
    • -Training
    • -Installation
  52. Measurement Tools 2. Diary
    • Diary in remaining TV Markets
    • -different ppl every week
    • -begins on Tuesday @ 5
    • -Divides the day into quarter-hour segments
    • -Call letters, channel number, program title , members
    • -Sweeps: 4 week periods for distributing diaries (Nov, Feb, May, July)
    • Response rates below 30%
  53. Relational Research
    • Impact of A on B
    • -what is the effect of an ad on increasing target awareness
  54. Descriptive Research
    • Description of a population
    • -HOW MANY ppl watched the bachelor
  55. Ways of observing
    • Device- assisted
    • -PPM, Pplmeter
    • -Online tracking
    • -survery research
    • --diary, census survey
    • Qualitive Research
  56. Levels of Measurement
    • Nominal
    • Ordinal
    • Interval
    • Ratio
  57. Levels of Measurement: Nominal
    • -each # represents a unique attribute
    • -no ordering
    • yes/no questions
    • Ex; male/ female pc/mac
  58. Levels of Measurement: Ordinal
    Ranking of something
  59. Levels of Measurement: Interval
    • -Continous
    • -Equal intervals between response
    • -can be added, subtracted, multipled and divided
    • -distance btw attributes has meaning
    • -no absolute meaning
    • Ex: iq, temperature, test scores
  60. Levels of Measurement: Ratio
    • Continous, equal, meaningful interval + absolute ZERO
    • Ex: height, weight, hours, mins, audience size
  61. Stages of Doing Research
    • Sampling Method => Selection of sample => non/random
    • Measurement=> selection of ways of measuring the sample and types of data => measurement tools and measurement level
    • Data Collection: "how"=> ways of reaching the sample and collecting data
  62. Data Collection- Personal Interview
    • -Expensive but worth it
    • -90% + response rates
    • -Good for large amounts of data, diversity, in- depth data, low literate ppl
  63. Data Collection- Phone Interview
    • -Most popular
    • -inexpensive
    • Good for: getting quick/simple data, general population studies, low-literate ppl
    • -low response rates
    • -lack of in depth responses
  64. Data Collection- Mail Surveys
    • 50-60% responses if done right
    • Good for: highly educated respondents, highly involved ppl
  65. Data Collection: Online Surveys
    • Response rate .001-60%
    • instantly available result
    • LEAST expensive
    • Varities
    • -pop up survey
    • -email survey
    • -web posting
    • -online panels
    • -social media

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