BI 102 test 2
Card Set Information
BI 102 test 2
BI 102 22 25
The organ systems
Most cases of cervical cancer are triggered by ________.
human immunodeficiency virus
Which of the following statements describes innate immunity?
It is a set of fast, general defenses against infection.
Which of the following blood cells is not a white blood cell?
What components are involved in innate immunity?
inflammation & fever & phagocytes
Which of the following events occurs during inflammation?
Mast cells release signaling molecules.
What properties are unique to adaptive immunity
memory & diversity & specificity
When a B cell, macrophage, or dendritic cell engulfs a bacterium, the bacterium is digested by ______.
What is a property that is characteristic of a secondary immune response?
It is faster than a primary immune response.
Which of the following body organs is not part of the lymphatic system that aids in immunity?
Antibodies are produced by ________.
Which of the following statements describes the function of effector helper T cells?
They induce B cells to divide
What cell types functions in both antibody‐mediated and cell‐mediated immuneresponses?
effector helper T cells
The cell‐mediated immune response is useful for targeting ________.
pathogens inside cells
A severe allergic reaction can trigger ________.
Which of the following diseases is an autoimmune disease?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of adaptive immunity?
. immediate response time
Tears and airway mucus both contain an enzyme called _____ that breaks up bacterial cell walls andcontrols microbial populations
In the inflammatory immune response, _____ cells release _____ which trigger arteriole vasodilation andincrease capillary permeability.
The antibody‐mediated immune response produces effector _____ cells, and the cell‐mediated immuneresponse produces effector _____ cells
B, cytotoxic T
The second exposure to an antigen produces a response that is _____ than the response to the firstexposure.
quicker and stronger
Activated _____ cells divide to form many clones which differentiate into _____ cells
. B, effector and memory
HIV is a(n) _____ that infects _____ cells (answer only 2nd blank).
_____ are the first line of defense against pathogens.
skin, mucous membranes, tears, saliva, gastric fluid, urine flowd, resident bacteria
. ____ trigger immune responses.
Antibody‐mediated responses work against _____.
extracellular pathogens & extracellular toxins
Which of the following is not part of an innate immune response?
antigen presenting cells
Allergies occur when the body responds to____ .
normally harmless substance
In which of the following animals is ingestion and elimination accomplished by the same body structure?
Which of the following digestive system organs is not a tube through which food passes?
In humans, most mechanical digestion is carried out by the ________.
Heartburn occurs when ________ does not work properly.
Which of the following substances is not secreted by the stomach?
Bile is stored in the ________.
Which of the following guidelines must be followed for a vegetarian to obtain all of the essential amino acids?
She must plan carefully to eat different plants containing different essential amino acids in the same 24‐hourperiod.
According to USDA guidelines, most of your caloric intake should be from ________.
Which of the following parts of the urinary systems is not found as a pair?
Which of the following substances is not a normal component of urine?
Which of the following processes is not used by nephrons in the kidney to cleanse the blood?
Anti‐diuretic hormone (ADH) causes which of the following effects?
decreased urine production
The best way to prevent kidney stones is ________.
to drink plenty of water.
Protein digestion begins in the _____.
Digestion is completed and most nutrients are absorbed in the ____.
Bile has roles in _____ digestion and absorption.
Most water that enters the gut is absorbed across the lining of the _____.
Essential fatty acids are ______.
not made by the body
Iron is an example of a ____.
Urea forms as a breakdown product of_____.
Filtration moves _____ into kidney tubules.
Water loss triggers a(n) ____ in ADH secretion.
Kidneys return water and small solutes to the blood by the process of ______.
Kidneys adjust the blood acidity by increasing or decreasing the _____ of H+.
Which of the following is not an organ of the digestive system?
Which of the following is not one of the five tasks of the digestive system?
The structure that controls the passage of chyme from the stomach to the duodenum is the _____.
Carbohydrates are digested to _____; proteins are digested to _____.
monosaccharides, amino acids
Which of the following is not a major form of nutrients used for energy in the human body?
In human nutrition, most animal proteins are _____; and most plant proteins are _____.
The _____ system regulates the composition and volume of extracellular fluid.
Which of the following is not commonly excreted in urine?
Which of the following is not an important structure in the kidney?
brush border cells
What is the main function of the loop of Henle?
concentration of urine
Which of the following is a common cause of kidney damage?
diabetes & high blood pressure & exposure to toxins
Interneurons send signals to which of the following targets?
Which of the following portions of a neuron transmits a signal to the next cell?
Which of the following structures or chemicals transmits an action potential along a neuron?
gated sodium channels
Which of the following statements describes the transmission of a signal from a neuron to its targetcell?
A chemical signal crosses the synaptic cleft between cells.
A decrease in production of the neurotransmitter dopamine is present in people with ________.
Which of the following structures is part of the central nervous system?
Which of the following statements describes the function of myelin produced by neuroglial cells?
It provides electrical insulation for the axon.
The "fight or flight" response is part of the ________.
autonomic nervous system.
Which of the following effects results from stimulation of parasympathetic neurons?
increased sections to the digestive tract
Which of the followings structures is found in the forebrain?
Information about vision is integrated in the ________ of the brain.
Which of the following senses is detected by chemoreceptors?
Muscles of the ________ adjust the diameter of the pupil of the eye.
Which of the following statements correctly describes changes in the shape of the lens of the eye?
The lens is flattest when viewing objects at far distances.
Color vision is detected by photoreceptors in the retina called ________.
The stirrup, hammer, and anvil are bones in the ________.
The sense of balance is detected by the ________.
Which of the following is the correct order in which information flows through a neuron?
dendrite, cell body, axon
An action potential is propagated along an axon by _____.
changing the voltage difference at successive sections of plasma membrane
The arrival of an action potential at an axon ending triggers _____.
exocytosis of neurotransmitter molecules from the presynaptic cell
_____ are signal molecules that cross a _____ between a neuron and a muscle fiber.
A(n) _____ carries signals toward the brain, and a(n) _____ carries signals away from the brain.
sensory neuron, motor neuron
Groups of nerve cell bodies that function as a local integrating center are called _____.
Which of the following is not a part of the peripheral nervous system?
Which of the following is not a response of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
pupils of eyes constrict
The coating that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord is(are) the _____.
In the brain, the main center for homeostatic control is the _____.
Sensory receptors detect energy and send information in the form of _____ to the _____.
action potentials, central nervous system
Which of the following sensations causes a response in taste chemoreceptors?
bitter & salty & umami
The part of the eye which absorbs and transduces light energy is the _____.
In nearsightedness, the visual image is focused _____.
in front of the retina
In the human ear, which structure transduces the mechanical energy of pressure waves into actionpotentials?
________ occur mainly in the brain and spinal cord.
Color blindness arises when ________ are missing or defective.
Which of the following glands is not an endocrine gland?
Which of the following conditions is required for a hormone to have an effect on a cell?
The cell must have a receptor for the hormone.
Which of the following glands is also a part of the brain?
Which of the following glands does not make the hormones that it secretes?
Which of the following glands is targeted by inhibitors and releasers from the hypothalamus?
Gigantism is a result of excess growth hormone produced by the ________.
The thyroid gland in the neck can enlarge to form a goiter if ________ is lacking from the diet.
Which of the following hormones causes an increase in blood calcium levels?
Insulin is a hormone produced by cells in the ________.
Which of the following tissues or organs is not targeted by insulin?
Which of the following statements about type 1 diabetes is false?
Obesity increases the risk of it.
The adrenal gland is located ________.
attached to the kidneys
Which of the following hormones is released by the anterior pituitary to regulate production of sexhormones?
Which of the following hormones is secreted by the pineal gland?
Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin are hormones produced in the hypothalamus, but released fromthe _____.
Overproduction of ___ causes acromegaly and pituitary gigantism.
The ____ regulate(s) calcium levels in the blood.
____ lowers blood sugar levels; _____ raises it.
A rise in hormone concentration in the blood slows production of that hormone in a ____ feedbackloop.
A person with an overly active thyroid gland is more likely to be unusually _____