BI 102 test 2

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BI 102 test 2
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2012-03-20 16:05:50
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BI 102 22 25
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The organ systems
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  1. Most cases of cervical cancer are triggered by ________.
    human immunodeficiency virus
  2. Which of the following statements describes innate immunity?
    It is a set of fast, general defenses against infection.
  3. Which of the following blood cells is not a white blood cell?
    erythrocyte
  4. What components are involved in innate immunity?
    inflammation & fever & phagocytes
  5. Which of the following events occurs during inflammation?
    Mast cells release signaling molecules.
  6. What properties are unique to adaptive immunity
    memory & diversity & specificity
  7. When a B cell, macrophage, or dendritic cell engulfs a bacterium, the bacterium is digested by ______.
    lysosomes
  8. What is a property that is characteristic of a secondary immune response?
    It is faster than a primary immune response.
  9. Which of the following body organs is not part of the lymphatic system that aids in immunity?
    thyroid
  10. Antibodies are produced by ________.
    B cells
  11. Which of the following statements describes the function of effector helper T cells?
    They induce B cells to divide
  12. What cell types functions in both antibody‐mediated and cell‐mediated immuneresponses?
    effector helper T cells
  13. The cell‐mediated immune response is useful for targeting ________.
    pathogens inside cells
  14. A severe allergic reaction can trigger ________.
    anaphylactic shock
  15. Which of the following diseases is an autoimmune disease?
    rheumatoid arthritis
  16. Which of the following is not a characteristic of adaptive immunity?
    . immediate response time
  17. Tears and airway mucus both contain an enzyme called _____ that breaks up bacterial cell walls andcontrols microbial populations
    lysozyme
  18. In the inflammatory immune response, _____ cells release _____ which trigger arteriole vasodilation andincrease capillary permeability.
    mast, histamines
  19. The antibody‐mediated immune response produces effector _____ cells, and the cell‐mediated immuneresponse produces effector _____ cells
    B, cytotoxic T
  20. The second exposure to an antigen produces a response that is _____ than the response to the firstexposure.
    quicker and stronger
  21. Activated _____ cells divide to form many clones which differentiate into _____ cells
    . B, effector and memory
  22. HIV is a(n) _____ that infects _____ cells (answer only 2nd blank).
    retrovirus, T
  23. _____ are the first line of defense against pathogens.
    skin, mucous membranes, tears, saliva, gastric fluid, urine flowd, resident bacteria
  24. . ____ trigger immune responses.
    antigens
  25. Antibody‐mediated responses work against _____.
    extracellular pathogens & extracellular toxins
  26. Which of the following is not part of an innate immune response?
    antigen presenting cells
  27. Allergies occur when the body responds to____ .
    normally harmless substance
  28. In which of the following animals is ingestion and elimination accomplished by the same body structure?
    flatworm
  29. Which of the following digestive system organs is not a tube through which food passes?
    pancreas
  30. In humans, most mechanical digestion is carried out by the ________.
    teeth.
  31. Heartburn occurs when ________ does not work properly.
    a sphincter
  32. Which of the following substances is not secreted by the stomach?
    buffer
  33. Bile is stored in the ________.
    gall bladder
  34. Which of the following guidelines must be followed for a vegetarian to obtain all of the essential amino acids?
    She must plan carefully to eat different plants containing different essential amino acids in the same 24‐hourperiod.
  35. According to USDA guidelines, most of your caloric intake should be from ________.
    carbohydrates
  36. Which of the following parts of the urinary systems is not found as a pair?
    urethra
  37. Which of the following substances is not a normal component of urine?
    Protein
  38. Which of the following processes is not used by nephrons in the kidney to cleanse the blood?
    excretion
  39. Anti‐diuretic hormone (ADH) causes which of the following effects?
    decreased urine production
  40. The best way to prevent kidney stones is ________.
    to drink plenty of water.
  41. Protein digestion begins in the _____.
    stomach
  42. Digestion is completed and most nutrients are absorbed in the ____.
    small intestine
  43. Bile has roles in _____ digestion and absorption.
    fat
  44. Most water that enters the gut is absorbed across the lining of the _____.
    large intestine
  45. Essential fatty acids are ______.
    not made by the body
  46. Iron is an example of a ____.
    mineral
  47. Urea forms as a breakdown product of_____.
    proteins
  48. Filtration moves _____ into kidney tubules.
    water
  49. Water loss triggers a(n) ____ in ADH secretion.
    increase
  50. Kidneys return water and small solutes to the blood by the process of ______.
    reabsorption
  51. Kidneys adjust the blood acidity by increasing or decreasing the _____ of H+.
    secretion
  52. Which of the following is not an organ of the digestive system?
    trachea
  53. Which of the following is not one of the five tasks of the digestive system?
    protein synthesis
  54. The structure that controls the passage of chyme from the stomach to the duodenum is the _____.
    pyloric sphincter
  55. Carbohydrates are digested to _____; proteins are digested to _____.
    monosaccharides, amino acids
  56. Which of the following is not a major form of nutrients used for energy in the human body?
    hydrocarbons
  57. In human nutrition, most animal proteins are _____; and most plant proteins are _____.
    complete, incomplete
  58. The _____ system regulates the composition and volume of extracellular fluid.
    urinary
  59. Which of the following is not commonly excreted in urine?
    carbon dioxide
  60. Which of the following is not an important structure in the kidney?
    brush border cells
  61. What is the main function of the loop of Henle?
    concentration of urine
  62. Which of the following is a common cause of kidney damage?
    diabetes & high blood pressure & exposure to toxins
  63. Interneurons send signals to which of the following targets?
    motor neurons
  64. Which of the following portions of a neuron transmits a signal to the next cell?
    axon
  65. Which of the following structures or chemicals transmits an action potential along a neuron?
    gated sodium channels
  66. Which of the following statements describes the transmission of a signal from a neuron to its targetcell?
    A chemical signal crosses the synaptic cleft between cells.
  67. A decrease in production of the neurotransmitter dopamine is present in people with ________.
    Parkinson's disease
  68. Which of the following structures is part of the central nervous system?
    spinal cord
  69. Which of the following statements describes the function of myelin produced by neuroglial cells?
    It provides electrical insulation for the axon.
  70. The "fight or flight" response is part of the ________.
    autonomic nervous system.
  71. Which of the following effects results from stimulation of parasympathetic neurons?
    increased sections to the digestive tract
  72. Which of the followings structures is found in the forebrain?
    cerebrum
  73. Information about vision is integrated in the ________ of the brain.
    occipital lobe
  74. Which of the following senses is detected by chemoreceptors?
    smell
  75. Muscles of the ________ adjust the diameter of the pupil of the eye.
    iris
  76. Which of the following statements correctly describes changes in the shape of the lens of the eye?
    The lens is flattest when viewing objects at far distances.
  77. Color vision is detected by photoreceptors in the retina called ________.
    cone cells
  78. The stirrup, hammer, and anvil are bones in the ________.
    middle ear.
  79. The sense of balance is detected by the ________.
    vestibular apparatus
  80. Which of the following is the correct order in which information flows through a neuron?
    dendrite, cell body, axon
  81. An action potential is propagated along an axon by _____.
    changing the voltage difference at successive sections of plasma membrane
  82. The arrival of an action potential at an axon ending triggers _____.
    exocytosis of neurotransmitter molecules from the presynaptic cell
  83. _____ are signal molecules that cross a _____ between a neuron and a muscle fiber.
    Neurotransmitters, synapse
  84. A(n) _____ carries signals toward the brain, and a(n) _____ carries signals away from the brain.
    sensory neuron, motor neuron
  85. Groups of nerve cell bodies that function as a local integrating center are called _____.
    ganglia
  86. Which of the following is not a part of the peripheral nervous system?
    spinal cord
  87. Which of the following is not a response of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
    pupils of eyes constrict
  88. The coating that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord is(are) the _____.
    meninges
  89. In the brain, the main center for homeostatic control is the _____.
    hypothalamus
  90. Sensory receptors detect energy and send information in the form of _____ to the _____.
    action potentials, central nervous system
  91. Which of the following sensations causes a response in taste chemoreceptors?
    bitter & salty & umami
  92. The part of the eye which absorbs and transduces light energy is the _____.
    retina
  93. In nearsightedness, the visual image is focused _____.
    in front of the retina
  94. In the human ear, which structure transduces the mechanical energy of pressure waves into actionpotentials?
    eardrum
  95. ________ occur mainly in the brain and spinal cord.
    interneurons
  96. Color blindness arises when ________ are missing or defective.
    cone cells
  97. Which of the following glands is not an endocrine gland?
    salivary gland
  98. Which of the following conditions is required for a hormone to have an effect on a cell?
    The cell must have a receptor for the hormone.
  99. Which of the following glands is also a part of the brain?
    Hypothalamus
  100. Which of the following glands does not make the hormones that it secretes?
    posterior pituitary
  101. Which of the following glands is targeted by inhibitors and releasers from the hypothalamus?
    anterior pituitary
  102. Gigantism is a result of excess growth hormone produced by the ________.
    anterior pituitary.
  103. The thyroid gland in the neck can enlarge to form a goiter if ________ is lacking from the diet.
    iodine
  104. Which of the following hormones causes an increase in blood calcium levels?
    parathyroid hormone
  105. Insulin is a hormone produced by cells in the ________.
    pancreas
  106. Which of the following tissues or organs is not targeted by insulin?
    stomach
  107. Which of the following statements about type 1 diabetes is false?
    Obesity increases the risk of it.
  108. The adrenal gland is located ________.
    attached to the kidneys
  109. Which of the following hormones is released by the anterior pituitary to regulate production of sexhormones?
    FSH
  110. Which of the following hormones is secreted by the pineal gland?
    melatonin
  111. Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin are hormones produced in the hypothalamus, but released fromthe _____.
    posterior pituitary
  112. Overproduction of ___ causes acromegaly and pituitary gigantism.
    Thymosin
  113. The ____ regulate(s) calcium levels in the blood.
    parathyroid glands
  114. ____ lowers blood sugar levels; _____ raises it.
    insulin; glucagon
  115. A rise in hormone concentration in the blood slows production of that hormone in a ____ feedbackloop.
    negative
  116. A person with an overly active thyroid gland is more likely to be unusually _____
    anxious

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