BIO 112

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switch2002
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142805
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BIO 112
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2012-03-20 23:44:46
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study guide
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  1. Cleavage (as applied to embryo development):
    Rapid cell division
  2. Blastula:
    A ball of cells surrounding a fluid filled cavity (the blastocoel) that is produced by repeated cleavage of a zygote
  3. Gastrula:
    Embryonic stage encompassing formation of 3 layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
  4. Ectoderm:
    Outer layer of cell in embryonic development; gives rise to skin, brain, nervous system
  5. Endoderm:
    Inner layer of cells in embryonic development; gives rise to organs and tissues associated with digestion & respiration
  6. Mesoderm:
    Middle layer of cells in embryonic development; gives rise to muscles, bones, blood, and structures associated with reproduction
  7. Hox genes:
    Regulate formation of body form
  8. Choanoflagellate:
    single-cell colony forming eukaryotes ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Common ancestor of animals may have resembled choanoflagellates
  9. Body plan:
    A set of morphological and developmental traits
  10. Radial symmetry:
    Parts arranged around central axis, normally circular in shape (no front or back but have top & bottom)
  11. Bilateral symmetry:
    Have top, bottom, head, tail (even if cut trait down middle, single axis)
  12. Tissue:
    Collections of specialized cells that carry out a specific function; isolated from other tissues by membranous layers
  13. Germ layer:
    Found in animal embryo, consists possibly of 3 layers; can give rise to ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
  14. Diploblastic:
    Animals that have only ectoderm and endoderm
  15. Triploblastic:
    Animals that have all 3 germ layers; ectoderm, mesoderm, and
  16. Coelom / coelomate:
    Body cavity between body wall and digestive tract/animals that have coelom or body cavity lined with mesoderm
  17. Pseudocoelom / pseudocoelomate:
    a closed fluid-containing cavity that acts as a hydrostatic skeleton to maintain body shape circulates nutrients, and holds major body organs.
  18. Acoelomate:
    Animals that do not have a coelom or body cavity (ex. Sponges, flatworms)
  19. Describe the four sets of characteristics that define an “animal”.
    Mode of nutrition:
    Cell structure and specialization:
    Reproduction and development:
    Control of development:
    • Heterotrophs (ingest food)
    • Multicellular ( eukaryotic ), lack cell walls, nervous and muscle tissue
    • Most via sexual reproduction (some asexual) dominate diploid stage, cleavage (rapid cell division)
    • Hox genes regulate development of body form
  20. Describe the three main hypotheses regarding the cause of the Cambrian explosion.
    (1) New predator-prey relationships(2) Rise in atmospheric oxygen (3) Evolution of Hox gene development
  21. 1. List the characteristics of animals that have bilateral symmetry (which are absent in animals with radial symmetry).
    Top, bottom, head, tail
  22. Cite two functions of a body cavity (coelom).
    (1) Cushions internal organs(2) allows organs to move independently, and growth
  23. What are the three key evolutionary branch points in animal phylogeny?
    (1) Presence of true tissues (2) Body symmetry (radial & bilateral) (3) Body cavities
  24. Anatomy:
    The biological form of an organism
  25. Physiology:
    The biological functions an organism performs
  26. Cell:
    Fundamental unit of life
  27. Tissue:
    A group of similar cells that are organized to perform a common function
  28. Organ:
    Multiple tissues that are organized to perform a common function
  29. Organ system:
    Group of organs that work together to perform a common function
  30. Regulator:
    Uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation
  31. Conformer:
    Allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes
  32. Homeostasis:
    Ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment
  33. Thermoregulation:
    Process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range
  34. Ectotherm:
    Animal that gains heat from external source (most fish, amphibians, reptiles)
  35. Endotherm:
    Animals that regulate heat by metabolism (birds, mammals)
  36. Acclimatization:
    Homeostasis adjusts to changes in the external environment
  37. Poikilotherm:
    Body temperature varies with its environment
  38. Homeotherm:
    Body temperature is relatively constant
  39. Thermogenesis:
    Adjustment of metabolic heat production to maintain body temperature (moving, shivering)
  40. Bioenergetics:
    The overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal (determines how much food and organism requires)
  41. Metabolic rate:
    The amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time
  42. Basal metabolic rate:
    The metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a “comfortable” temperature
  43. Standard metabolic rate:
    The metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature
  44. Torpor:
    Physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases
  45. Hibernation:
    Long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity
  46. Estivation: (summer torpor)
    enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water
  47. Daily torpor:
    Exhibited by many small mammals and birds and seems adapted to feeding patterns
  48. Briefly explain how single celled organisms and organisms that are only two cell layers thick (sponges, cnidarians, flatworms) exchange materials with their external environment.
    Single cells organisms’ entire body contacts environment, 2 celled- Both layers of cells come into contact with the external environment as the organism opens its mouth.
  49. Briefly explain how complex, multicellular organisms are able to efficiently exchange materials with their external environment.
    Through the digestive tract, respiratory system, and circulatory system
  50. Give an example of each of the following in mammals:
    Organ system:
    Organ:
    Tissue:
    • Organ system: Digestive system
    • Organ: Heart
    • Tissue: Skin
  51. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    Digestive system
    food processing (ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination)
  52. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    circulatory system
    internal distribution of materials
  53. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    respiratory system
    gas exchange
  54. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    immune system
    body defense
  55. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    extretory system
    disposal of metabolic waste – regulation of osmotic balance
  56. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    endocrine system
    coordination of body’s activities (digestion, metabolism, etc.)
  57. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    reproductive system
    reproduction
  58. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    nervous system
    coordination of body activities – detection of stimuli – response to stimuli
  59. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    integumentary system
    (skin) protection against mechanical injury, infection, dehydration –thermoregulation
  60. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    skeletal system
  61. body support –protection of internal organs –movement
  62. Cite the main function(s) for each of the following organ systems in animals:
    muscular system
    movement
  63. Briefly explain how the endocrine system works to control and coordinate metabolism and function within an organism’s body.
    Transmits chemical signals/hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via the bloodstream which result in relative slow response that is long- lasting
  64. Briefly explain how the nervous system works to control and coordinate metabolism and function within an organism’s body:
    Nerve impulses/stimulus can be received by neurons, muscle cells, endocrine cells, and exocrine cells which result in quick response that is short-acting.
  65. Using a simple stimulus-response model, describe how an organism maintains homeostasis despite changes in the external environment.
    Like a thermostat our bodies regulates heat/cold based on a set regulated temp of 98.6. If our body temp drops or rises homeostasis regulates a relatively constant temp.
  66. Give an example of how set points and normal ranges of homeostasis can change with age or show cyclic variation.
    Age (especially in females) changes hormone levels which regulate homeostasis. Sleeping also changes homeostasis based on fluctuation in melatonin levels
  67. Explain how ectothermic organisms regulate their internal body temperature.
    They gain heat from external sources (ex. hot sand/rocks. Basking in sun)
  68. Which groups of organisms are ectotherms?
    Most fishes, amphibians, reptiles
  69. Explain how endothermic organisms regulate their body temperature.
    Heat via metabolism (ingesting food)
  70. Which groups of organisms are endotherms?
    Mammals, birds
    Mammals, birds
  71. Describe the five adaptations we discussed in class that animals use to assist with thermoregulation.
    (1)Insulation (2) Circulatory adaptations (3)Cooling by evaporative heat loss (4)Behavioral responses (5) Adjusting metabolic heat production
  72. How are an animal’s energy requirements related to its size?
    Small animals have a higher metabolic rate than large animals
  73. How are an animal’s energy requirements related to its activity level?
    Higher activity consumes more energy than a resting state. Therefore, more energy is required for higher activity.
  74. What are the three ways in which an animal’s metabolic rate can be measured?
    (1) Heat loss (2) Amount of oxygen consumed (3) Amount of carbon dioxide produced
  75. How do the following factors influence an animal’s metabolic rate?
    a. endothermic vs. ectothermic regulation:
    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a “comfortable” temperature

    Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature
  76. How do the following factors influence an animal’s metabolic rate?
    size:
    Smaller animals have higher metabolic rates per gram of body mass than larger animals
  77. How do the following factors influence an animal’s metabolic rate?
    activity level
    Metabolism increases or decreases based on activity level
  78. Why are hibernation, estivation, and daily torpor beneficial for an organism?
    It decreases their metabolism, thus allowing them to withstand times when food is limited
  79. Invertebrate:
    Animals that lack a backbone
  80. Choanocyte:
    generate a water current through the sponge–ingest suspended food particles intracellulary
  81. Amoebocyte:
    digest food and transport nutrients –produce spicules or spongin
  82. Cnidocyte:
    specialized organelles within tentacles
  83. Nematocyst:
    within cnidocyte; ejects a stringing thread
  84. Gastrovascular cavity:
    Central digestive cavity
  85. Alimentary canal (complete digestive tract):
    Digestive tracts consisting of a tube running from mouth to anus
  86. Complete metamorphosis:
    Young go through pupa state where complete transformation occurs, young do not resemble adult (ex. Caterpillar to butterfly)
  87. Incomplete metamorphosis:
    Young resemble adults, molts body; w/last molt becomes adult/sexually mature (ex. Grasshopper)
  88. Water vascular system:
    network of hydraulic canals branching into tube feet for locomotion, gas exchange, and feeding
  89. Defining characteristics of sponges:
    Lack true tissues and organs- No symmetry- no body cavity
  90. Defining characteristics of Cnidarians :
    True tissues-redial symmetry-no body cavity-tentacles with stinging cells
  91. Defining characteristics of Flatworms:
    True tissue-bilateral symmetry- gastrovascular cavity-lack circulatory system
  92. Defining characteristics of Nematodes:
    True tissue-bilateral symmetry-alimentary canal (complete)
  93. Defining characteristics of Mollusks:
    • True tissue- bilateral symmetry- alimentary canal (complete). Includes-
    • Gastropods: (snails, slugs)
    • Bivalves: (clams, oysters)
    • Cephalopods: (squid, octopus)
  94. Defining characteristics of Annelids:
    (segmented worms) True tissue, bilateral symmetry, alimentary canal (complete)- body is series of fused rings
  95. Defining characteristics of Arthropods:
    • (have exoskeleton) True tissue-bilateral symmetry-alimentary canal. Include-
    • Arachnids:
    • Centipedes:
    • Millipedes:
    • Insects:
    • Crustaceans:
  96. Defining characteristics of Echinoderms:
    (sea stars) True tissues- larvae have bilateral, adults have pentaradial symmetry, alimentary canal-water vascular system

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