Social and Behavioral Epidemiology

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Cartejer
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142828
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Social and Behavioral Epidemiology
Updated:
2012-03-20 21:06:13
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Epidemiology
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  1. Lifestyle
    The choice of behavioral factors that affect how we live

    –These choices often are a function of social influences

    –Personal behavior is associated with many chronic diseases

    –The impact of the factors is not fully recognized
  2. Stress and Health
    • Stress is “…a physical,
    • chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a
    • factor in disease causation.”

    Examples of conditions studied as outcomes of stress:

    –Cardiovascular disease

    –Posttraumatic stress disorder

    –Work-related anxiety and neurotic disorders
  3. Stressful Life Events
    • Stressors (sources of stress) that arise from happenings such as job loss, financial problems, and
    • death of a close family member

    Types of events:

    –Positive and negative life events

    –Chronic strains

    Negative life events are those associated with adverse life circumstances

    Examples: being fired from work or being arrested and incarcerated

    Positive life events

    • Examples:
    • graduation from school, marriage, and birth of a new child
  4. Chronic Strains
    Life events that are sustained over a long period of time
  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    “…an anxiety disorder that some people develop after seeing or living through an event that caused or threatened serious harm or death….”
  6. Symptoms of PTSD
    • Flashbacks or bad dreams
    • Emotional numbness
    • Intense guilt or worry
    • Angry outbursts
    • Feeling ‘on edge’
    • Avoiding thoughts and situations that remind them [people] of the trauma”
  7. Social Support
    Refers to help received from other people when one is under stress

    • Friends, relatives, and significant others often are able to
    • provide material and emotional support during times of stress
  8. Coping Skills
    Techniques for managing or removing sources of stress

    Effective coping skills help mitigate the effects of stress
  9. Heavy drinking
    • Women: more than one drink per day on average
    • Men: more than two drinks per day on average
  10. Binge drinking
    • Women: more than three drinks during a single occasion
    • Men: more than four drinks during a single occasion
  11. Alcohol Consumption
    • More than one-tenth of alcohol consumed in the U.S. is by persons under age 21
    • 90% of this consumption takes place as binge drinking
    • Among high school students, more than 30% of males and 25% of females engaged in binge drinking (2005)
    • In 2005, 19.5% of full-time college students and 13.0% of part-time college students were heavy drinkers
  12. Substance Abuse
    • Illicit drugs included:
    • Marijuana
    • -The most commonly used illicit drug among persons aged 12 orolder (2006)
    • Methamphetamines
    • Heroin
  13. Methamphetamines
    • Methamphetamines are highly addictive substances
    • Use may result in:
    • -Rise in body temperature
    • -Psychotic symptoms
    • -Crank bug
    • -Meth mouth
  14. Meth Mouth
    A condition that contributes to decay and loss of teeth

    Attributed to

    –Reduced output of saliva

    –Increased sugar consumption

    –Neglect of personal hygiene
  15. Use of Methamphetamines
    • In U.S., 1.4 million persons aged 12 or older reported past year use (2004)
    • Among U.S. high school students, the lifetime use of methamphetamines was 4.4% (2007)
  16. Overweight and Obesity
    • Overweight and obesity are increasing in prevalence in the United States
    • Being overweight or obese impacts the quality of one’s life and increases the risk of chronic diseases
    • Sedentary lifestyle and consumption of high-calorie foods are associated with overweight and obesity
  17. Body Mass Index (BMI)
    • A measure of overweight and obesity that takes into account both a person’s weight and height
    • Defined as body weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared
    • Overweight: BMI ≥ 25 and ≤ 29.9
    • Obesity: BMI ≥ 30.
  18. Epidemiology and Mental Health
    • One of the important applications of epidemiology
    • Mental disorders have characteristic distributions according to the categories of person, place, and
    • time
  19. Psychiatric Epidemiology
    • Studies the occurrence of mental disorders in the population
    • –Variables include age, sex, and social class
    • –The discipline measures the frequency of occurrence of mental disorders and factors related to their etiology

    • DSM-IV-TR (2000)
    • -Manual used for the classification of psychiatric disorders
  20. Types of Mental Disorders
    • Anxiety disorders
    • Mood disorders
    • –Major depressive episode
    • –Dysthymia
    • –Bipolar disorder
    • Impulse-control disorders
    • Substance use disorders
    • More than 25% of U.S. population is afflicted with a mental disorder during a given year
  21. Psychiatric Comorbidity
    Defined as the co-occurrence of two or more mental disorders

    –For example, major depression and substance use disorder
  22. Autism
    • Autism (autism spectrum disorder-ASD) is a condition that impairs functioning in the social, communication, and behavioral domains
    • Generally appears by 3 years of age
    • Manifested by difficulties in:
    • –Cognitive functioning
    • –Learning
    • –Processing sensory information
    • Prevalence in U.S. about 4.5 to 9.9 per 1,000 children
  23. Summary
    • Social factors and lifestyle
    • practices (which are modifiable) play a significant role in health
    • Tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption
    • Substance abuse
    • Sedentary habits
    • Stress
    • Mental disorders are an important topic for epidemiologic studies
    • –High prevalence of mental disorders
    • Contributions of psychiatric epidemiology

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