Microbio 13

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Morgan.liberatore
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142831
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Microbio 13
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2012-03-20 22:19:05
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Microbio 13
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Microbio 13
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  1. What are some examples of algae?
    • Euglenids
    • Dynoflagellates
    • Diatoms
    • Brown algae
    • Golden algae
  2. What are red algae also known as?
    rhodophytes
  3. Where are red algae found?
    Mostly marine, but some freshwater and terrestrial
  4. Where does color of red algae come from?
    • Phycoerythrin - an accessory pigment
    • It is produced by cells
  5. What is the one unicellular species of red algae?
    Galdieria - lives in acidic hot springs
  6. What are green algae also known as?
    Chlorophytes
  7. What are chlorophytes closely related to?
    plants
  8. Where are green algae found?
    Most inhabit freshwater but some are marine or terrestrial
  9. How do chlorophytes reproduce?
    Both sexual and asexual
  10. Where do endolithic algae grow?
    Inside porous rocks
  11. How many cells do chlorophytes have?
    Can be unicellular to multicellular
  12. Most fungi have how many cells?
    Multicellular
  13. What is a mycelium?
    • Vegetative part of a fungus
    • Consists of a network of fine white filaments (hyphae)
  14. What does coenocytic mean?
    Cytoplasm and nuclei are not subdivided into cells
  15. What does septate mean?
    Nuclei are separated by cross wall
  16. What are conidia?
    • Hyphae that extend above the surface can produce asexual spores called conidia
    • They are often pigmented and resistant to drying
  17. Most fungal cell walls are made of what?
    Chitin
  18. How do fungi feed?
    • Feed by secreting extracellular enzymes that digest complex organic materials (polymers)
    • Monomers, or short polymers are then assimilated
  19. What is mycorrhizae?
    • Symbiotic association where some species of fungi form close relationships with plant roots
    • Example: glomeromycetes
    • Help plant roots obtain phosphorous
    • Fungi obtain nutrients from the plant
  20. What do ectomycorrhizae do?
    Form a sheath around the plant root but does not penetrate it
  21. What do endomycorrhizae do?
    The fungal hyphae is embedded in the plant root
  22. Can fungi cause disease?
    • Yes, in plants and animals
    • Example: dutch elm trees were devastated by fungal infection of the ascomycete Ophiostoma ulmi
  23. What are haustoria?
    The specialized hyphae that many fungal plant pathogens form
  24. What are mycoses?
    • Fungal infections in animals
    • In humans range in severity from athlete's foot to histoplasmosis
    • Immunosuppression is a major risk factor
  25. How do most fungi reproduce?
    • Asexual means, 3 forms:
    • 1. Growth and spread of hyphal filaments
    • 2. Asexual production of spores
    • 3. Simple cell division (budding yeasts)
  26. How do fungi reproduce sexually?
    • Some fungi produce spores
    • Sexual spores can originate from the fusion of 2 haploid cells to form a diploid cell (ascospores, basidiospores, zygospores)
    • Spores are resistant to drying, heating, freezing, chemicals
  27. Fungi share more common ancestor with ______ than any other group of eukaryotic organisms
    animals
  28. When is it estimated that fungi and animals diverged?
    1.5 billion years ago
  29. What is the earliest fungal lineage known?
    Thought to be chytridiomycetes?
  30. What are chytrids?
    • Chytridiomycetes
    • earliest diverging line of fungi
  31. Where are chytrids found?
    Commonly found in moist soil and freshwater
  32. How many cells do chytrids have?
    Some unicellular some colonial
  33. What does the fruiting body of chytrids contain?
    • Sexual spores called zoospores that are flagellated and motile
    • Beneficial for dispersal
  34. What are some chytrids implicated in?
    • Massive die-off of amphinians
    • Some are pathogenic
  35. What are zygomycetes known for?
    Primarily for food spoilage
  36. Where are zygomycetes commonly found?
    In soil and decaying plant material
  37. What is Rhizopus stolonifer?
    • A black bread mold
    • A representative of zygomycetes
  38. What are ascomycetes?
    Highly diverse, single-celled species (baker's yeast) and multicellular species
  39. Where are ascomycetes found?
    Found in aquatic and terrestrial environments
  40. What do ascomycetes do?
    • Decompose dead plant material
    • Some are lichen symbiots
  41. How do ascomycetes reproduce?
    Sexual reproduction - 2 haploid nuclei from different mating type fuse, forming a diploid nucleus that undergoes meiosis to form haploid spores located in a sac (ascus)
  42. What is an ascus?
    The sexual spore-bearing cell produced in ascomycete fungi
  43. What shape are the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae?
    Spherical to oval
  44. How do Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo cell division?
    Through budding
  45. How do Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduce?
    Sexual reproduction, mating types
  46. What is Saccharomyces cerevisiae a species of?
    Yeast
  47. What kinds of cells can switch from one type to another by genetic switch mechanism?
    Yeast cells
  48. How many described species of Basidiomycetes exist?
    Over 30,000
  49. Most Basidiomycetes are recognizable as what?
    Mushrooms and 'toadstools'
  50. Are Basidiomycetes edible?
    Some are edible, some are highly poisonous (like Aminita)
  51. Basidiomycetes are also _____ and ________ of plants and humans
    yeasts and pathogens
  52. How do Basidiomycetes reproduce?
    • Undergo both vegetative and sexual reproduction
    • Spores are at the end of a club-shaped basidium

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