ACSM Functional Anatomy.txt

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cobber81
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142848
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ACSM Functional Anatomy.txt
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2012-03-20 22:29:15
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ACSM
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  1. appendicular skeleton
    all the bones that are found in the limbs of the body
  2. Atrioventricular valves
    (AV) valves separate the atria from the ventricles
  3. Tricuspid valve separates
    right atria from ventricle
  4. the left AV valve is called
    bicuspid or mitral valve
  5. auscultation
    act of listening to the body sounds with stethoscope - blood pressure, hear rate, heart and lung sounds
  6. axial skeleton
    form the central or supportive core: skull, vertebral column, ribs and sternum
  7. contractile proteins
    proteins found in muscle cells that interact to cause force - major ones are actin and myosin
  8. motor unit
    single somatic motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates
  9. specialized muscle proteins that block the binding of the contractile proteins to one another and keeps the muscle in a relaxed state
    regulatory proteins - troponin and tropomyosin
  10. where diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs within the lungs
    respiratory membrane - formed by the walls of alveoli and capillaries as they come in contact with the lungs
  11. muscle or group of muscle that assists the agonist in performing a joint action
    synergist
  12. ventilation - act of breathing in (inspiration) and out (expiration) so that oxygen can be exchanged for carbon dioxide occurs in the
    alveoli
  13. the coronal plane divides the body into
    anterior and posterior portions (also called frontal)
  14. the heart is located in the space called
    mediastinum
  15. external deep groves of the heart
    sulci
  16. what separtes the atria from the ventricles
    coronary sulcus
  17. what separates the left ventricle from the right
    interventricular sulcus
  18. The layers of the heart are
    • parietal pericardium (serous and fibrous layers)
    • pericardial cavity
    • epicardium
    • myocardium
    • endocardium
  19. what acts as a lubricant and reduces friction between the membranes during contraction
    pericardial fluid (in pericardial cavity)
  20. the thickest layer of tissue in the heart is the
    myocardium - contains cardiac muscle
  21. what forms the innermost lining of the walls of the heart changers and valves
    endocardium
  22. which side of the heart is the pulmonary circuit
    right side of the heart collects blood from the periphery and pumps it through the lungs
  23. the left side of the heart collects blood from the lungs and pumps it throughout the body called the _______ circuit
    systemic
  24. what separates the ventricles from the aorta and pulmonary artery trunk
    semilunar valves
  25. which are smaller and thinner, atria or ventricles
    atria (LV are 2-3x thicker than RV)
  26. the cusps of the AV valves are attached to
    chordae tendineae
  27. during ventricular contraction, what happens to chordae tendineae
    the papillary muscles shorten and pull it tight; preventing the AV valves from swinging back into the atria - preventing backflow
  28. venous blood flows into RA from
    vena cava, coronary sinus, anterior cardiac veins
  29. order of pulmonary circuit
    vena cava, RA, tricuspid valve, RV, pulmonary valve, pulmonary artery (alveolar capillaries - gas exchanged)
  30. order of systemic circuit
    LA, bicuspid valve,LV, aortic valve, aorta, body
  31. the functional supply of blood for the heart (nutrients and oxygen) is delivered by the
    coronary artery
  32. the electrical impulse that initiates cardiac contraction is
    SA node or intrinsic pacemaker of the heart - at RA; 60-80x per min at rest
  33. how is the electrical impulse spread from SA node to AV node
    internodal gaps
  34. what happens to the electrical impulse at the AV node
    delated .13 seconds to allow atria to contract and fill the ventricles
  35. From the AV node, where does the elctrical impulse go
    AV bundle or bundle of His; R & L bundle branches and through the network of Purkinje fibers (in myocardium of both ventricles)
  36. The rate and forcefulness of heart contraction depend on
    autonomic nervous system control and hormone activity; norepinephrine and epinephrine stimulate the atria and ventricles to beat faster
  37. what nerves control the atria and slow the heart rate
    parasympathetic nerves (vagi)
  38. from largest to smallest list the types of arteries
    lg arteries, small arteries, arterioles, capillaries
  39. on the venous side of circulation, list smallest to largest
    sm venules, veins
  40. What kind of arteries helps maintain presure within the vessels
    elastic
  41. what kind of arteries distribute blood throughout the body
    muscular
  42. very small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries
    arterioles
  43. arterioles play a major role in regulating blood flow because of their ability to
    vasoconstrict or vasodialate (can affect BP)
  44. microscopic vessels that connect the arterioles with the venules
    capillaries
  45. collect blood from capillaries
    venules, then veins collect the blood from venules
  46. which can contain one way valves, veins or arteries
    veins - like in the legs, to maintain venous return to the heart
  47. vasoconstriction is caused by
    smooth muscle located in venous walls
  48. which artery is used to determine BP
    brachial
  49. locations to take pulse
    carotid - neck and radial - wrist; other locations include temporal, popliteal (back of knee), femoral (groin), dorsal pedis (top of foot)
  50. The upper respiratory tract includes
    nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi (conducting portion)
  51. the loser respiratory system
    respiratory bonchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli (repiratory portion)
  52. what protects the voice box when swallowing
    epiglottis
  53. the exchange of respiratory gases takes place by
    passive diffusion across the respiratory membrane
  54. define ventilation
    exchange of air, inspiration and expiration in the lungs, activated by diaphram; pulmonary circulation is low-pressure system
  55. during inspiration what happens to the pressure
    as the thorasic space increases, the pressure in the pleural space is lower than the outside atmospheric presure, air enters the lung until the intrapulmonary (inside the lung) gas is equal to the atmospheric pressure
  56. during expiration, what happens to the pressure in the lung
    the repiratory muscles relax andthe thoracic dimensions decrease, increasing intrapulmonary pressure relative to the outside atmospheric pressure - air flows to outside the body
  57. the diaphram, major muscle of inspiration is innervated by the
    phrenic nerve
  58. patients with airflow obstruction (bronchoconstriction in asthma or emphysema) what happens to their lungs
    hyperinflation of the lungs stretches the lung tissue and leads to additional elastic reoil, forcing the diaphram downward and shortening the vertical muscle fibers
  59. bones in the axial skeletal system
    skull, vertebral column, sternum and ribs
  60. appendicular skeleton
    all the bones not in axial skeleton, of the upper and lower limbs
  61. main portion of a long bone is called
    diaphysis
  62. the ends of bones are called
    epiphyses and are covered by articular cartilage - connective tissue that reduces friction in synovial joints AND redistributes joint loads to a wider area which decreases stresses by contacting joints
  63. the connection where the diaphysis joins the epiphysis in a)mature bone b) immature bone
    • a) metaphysis
    • b) ephiphyseal or growth plate
  64. the marrow cavity inside the diaphysis is called
    medullary cavity
  65. on the bone, where liagments and tendons attach and is critical for bone growth, repair and nutrition
    periosteum
  66. in spongy bone, the tree-dinensional lattice composed of beams or struts of bone
    trabeculae - provide strength and counteract stresses
  67. in some bones, the space within these trabeculae is filled with
    red bone marrow - which produces blood cells
  68. most common joint in the body
    synovial joint - the synovial membrane produces synovial fluid which reduces friction and wear and tear
  69. degree of movement at a joint
    range of motion
  70. the three types of muscle tissue
    skeletal, cardiac and smooth
  71. type of muscle that is attached primarily to bones and is responsible for movement, stabilizing the body (posture), load distribution, shock absorption, and heat generation
    skeletal
  72. a thin elastic membrane found just beneath the endomysium of a muscle fiber is called
    sarcolemma - the true cell boundary that encloses the cellular contents of the muscle fiber, nuclei, fat, glucose (as glycogen), enzymes, contractile proteins and specialized structures like mitochondria
  73. epymysium, perimysiou, and endomysium converge to form
    tendons - dense cords of connective tissue that attach a muscle to the periosteum of the bone
  74. myofibrils contain 2 types of myofilaments called _______ and _______ and are found in the smallest contractile unilt of skeletal muscle, the _________.
    thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments, sarcomere
  75. each myofibril is composed of numerous sarcomeres joined end to end at _________.
    z-lines
  76. the thin filaments consist of the cotractile protein actin and regulatory proteins
    tropomyosin and troponin
  77. muscle fibers that are fatique resistant and selected for activities of low intensity and long duration
    type I
  78. the generation of energy for continued muscle contraction type I is through
    ongoing oxidation of available carbs and fats
  79. power and high-intensity speed tasks have a greater number of these muscle fibers
    type II or type IIB
  80. metabolically, type IIB fibers are
    anaerobic as they rely on energy sources intrinsic to the muscle not on fuels like type I
  81. when an endurance element is introduced, like an event lasting several minutes, a second muscle fiber is recruited
    type IIA - an intermediate fiber type, can generate a moderate amt of force they also have some aerobic capacity
  82. because most muscles cross a joint, and as a muscle contracts ir pulls one of the articulating bones toward the other, the attachment that is usually proximal and more stationary is __________ and the muscle attachment that moves the most is distal and ______
    origin and insertion
  83. levers are classified acording to the relative position of the center axis of roation and the effort and resistance forces, what is the most common lever in the human body
    third-class levers and are designed for large ROM and speed and movment
  84. describe a first class lever
    the foot where the force is at the ankle and the resistance is the toes
  85. describe a 2nd class lever
    wheel barrel, where the force in the hands on the handles pulling up and the resistance is at the center between the handles and the wheel
  86. describe a 3rd class lever
    the arm where the force is the bicep muscle pulling the forearm up and the resistance is the forearm
  87. a type of muscle action where the muslce generates force in the asence of joint movement
    isometric
  88. type of muscle action that occurs then the muscle torque being generated exceeds the torque of theresistance force and the muscle shortens in length such as theupward phase of a bicep curl
    concentric
  89. muscle action where the torque generated by the muscle is less than the torque of the resistance force being encountered, resulting in muscle lengthening rather than shortening
    eccentric
  90. during a bicep curl the agonist or prime movers are the ____ which includes the _____ ____ _____ and the antagonist _______ ______
    • elbow flexors; biceps brachii, bracialis and brachioradialis
    • triceps brachii and anconeus

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