Product Development

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Author:
hayleyjo2
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142849
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Product Development
Updated:
2012-03-22 01:37:56
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PD Midterm
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PD Midterm
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  1. What is apparel product development?
    • Creating a garment from start to finish
    • Adapting the existing elements of a product to meet your merchandising needs
  2. Is product development "knocking off"?
    No, because product development doesn't copy an existing item directly -- it involves interpreting the elements of something that already exists
  3. Main differences between retail and wholesale product development
    • Pricing structure
    • Target customer profile
    • Market research; trends
  4. Players in the PD chain
    • Fabric specialists
    • Technical designers
    • Sourcing specialists
    • Graphic designers
    • Designers/merchandisers
    • Production managers
    • Quality control managers
    • Buyers
  5. Manufacturer (national) brands
    Designed, produced, and marketed by a vendor and sold by many retailers
  6. Private-label (store) brands
    Developed by retailer and only sold in retailer's outlets
  7. Licensed brand
    Developed by licensee and sold to either manufacturer or retailer
  8. History of private label
    • Brands used to refuse to sell into national chain stores, so they created their own brands that were influenced by branded products
    • Initially "private label" tended to be basic styles
  9. Advantages of private label
    • Line can be developed exclusively to fit retailer's customer
    • Promotes customer loyalty
    • Price advantage
    • Higher initial margins
    • New fashions at affordable prices
    • Licensing options
  10. Disadvantages of private label
    • Responsibility for development costs
    • Longer lead-times
    • Lack of markdown money
    • Investment in inventory
    • Bad season can turn customer away
  11. Components of planning
    • Strategic planning
    • Merchandise planning
    • Creative planning
    • Technical planning
    • Production planning
  12. Strategic planning
    • Focuses on a retailer's business direction (exec level)
    • Sales and profit goals
    • Analysis of growth opportunities (new products)
    • Marketing mix by product categories
    • Company resource allocation
  13. Merchandise planning
    • Focuses on the type of products to be developed:
    • Price level
    • Style assortment (merchandise mix)
    • Timing of product arrival into the store
  14. Merchandise plan or budget
    • Analyze historic data and current trends
    • Break down into line or range plan
    • Assortment plans within line plans
  15. Pre-planning
    • Autopsy of past like season:
    • Review of sales by style
    • # of fabrics used
    • # of styles in line (SKUs)
    • # of colors
    • # of sizes
    • Price points
    • Retail performance
  16. Creative planning
    Tracks and interprets trends and how they relate to your target customer
  17. Technical planning
    • Undertaken by the technical design team
    • Defines styles by developing:
    • (1) Fit standards
    • (2) Construction specifications
    • (3) Materials
    • (4) Patterns
  18. Production planning
    • Where to make the product
    • Price
    • Quality / quantity capabilities
    • Production timelines
    • Transit time
  19. Stages of apparel product development
    • (1) Line concept - trend research
    • (2) Line development - sketches
    • (3) Line review - presenting to management
    • (4) Proto sketches / spec sheets to factory
    • (5) Initial samples and corrections
    • (6) Initial costing
    • (7) Sales samples ordered
    • (8) Final costing
    • (9) Review meeting with store buyers
  20. Planning and control tools
    • Marketing calendar
    • Merchandising calendar
    • Line plan
  21. Marketing calendar
    • When does the product need to be in-store?
    • All planning dates stem from that date
    • Ads / promotion have to sync with product delivery
  22. Merchandising calendar
    • Time and action calendar
    • Primary control tool
    • Critical path method (Gantt chart)
  23. Line plan
    • Provides a skeleton product plan to the design team:
    • # of fabrics
    • # in styles by product group = fabric + silhouette
    • # of constructions = fabric + silhouette + color
    • # of SKUs = fabric + silhouette + color + size
  24. Sales forecasts: how do we decide how much to buy?
    • Previous history
    • Trends and forecasters
    • Guesswork
  25. Order tracking calendar
    • Tracks the work-in-progress
    • Monitors any potential production delays
    • Allows corrective action to be taken in a timely manner
  26. Supply chain management and product development
    PD team must get the disred product to the customer as fast as possible, with the best possible quality at the best possible price
  27. Quick response (QR)
    • Shorten the cycle times in apparel development, execution and delivery
    • Risk reduction - utilizing technology to reduce merchandiser's guesswork
  28. Line development
    • Includes research, line planning, product development, costing, specs, review & adoption, and sample making
    • Technology shortens each function
  29. Blended sourcing
    • Use of several factories based on delivery requirements
    • Company can acheive pricing and replenishment objectives
  30. Corporate vertical market system
    Vertical supply chain
  31. Contractual vertical market system
    Out-sourcing
  32. Zara
    • Makes 60% of its merchandise in-house
    • Warehouse moves about 2.5 million items a week
    • Connected to 14 Zara factories through underground tunnels
    • Clothing is floor-ready when shipped to stores
    • Idea to shelves = 15 DAYS!!!
  33. How does Zara get a better idea of what their customers want?
    • POS tracks how items in store are selling
    • PDA inputs items people come looking for
  34. Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing
    • Schedule materials to arrive exactly when they are needed in the production process - keeps inventory to a minimum
    • Feature of the world's most responsive supply chains
  35. Who has higher manufacturing costs, Gap or Zara?
    • Zara (15-20% more)
    • Zara can survive with higher labor costs because they produce lots of products in small lots, while Gap produces a smaller number in bigger lots
  36. Zara's profitability
    • No slack inventory: what it makes it sells
    • Rarely have sales or take markdowns
    • Being so quick = minimum risk
  37. How is Zara vulnerable?
    • Almost all products manufactured in Europe
    • Cost differential with Asia becomes more pronounced in comparison to the strong Euro
  38. The 9 features of apparel
    • Color
    • Print or pattern
    • Fiber content
    • Fabric construction
    • Texture / surface treatment
    • Silhouette
    • Construction
    • Fit
    • Trims / embellishment
  39. PD needs to get the 9 components of apparel correct based on:
    Current trends that relate to your target consumer
  40. How to gain market knowledge
    • Shopping the market
    • Meeting with your buyers
    • Researching the consumer market
    • Shopping fabric and trim marekts
    • Reading trade and business journals
    • Observing lifestyle and tastes
    • Style consultants
    • Attend trade shows
  41. Predicting the movement of fashion
    • Distinguish what the current trends are
    • Estimate how widespread they are
    • Determine when these trends will reach your target customer
  42. Factors affecting fashion movement
    • Consumer acceptance and desire
    • Economic acceptance (affordability)
    • Social acceptance
    • Adaptations (fabrics, textures, color)
    • Marketing
    • Fashion leaders
  43. Trickle-across theory
    • Fashion acceptance begins among several socioeconomic groups
    • Adopted by fashion leaders then spread outwards throughout the socioeconomic group
    • Most prevalent in 21st century due to technology
  44. Principles of Fashion (5)
    • (1) Consumers establish fashion
    • (2) Fashions are not based on price
    • (3) Fashions are evolutionary in nature
    • (4) Sales promotion cannot change fashion direction
    • (5) All fashions end in extremes
  45. What does an undefined target market lead to? (problem with Gap)
    • Unclear product concepts
    • Inconsistent presentations at retail
    • Confused customers
  46. Color values
    The lights and darks of a color you create by mixing black or white with a color
  47. Color schemes
    • A systematic way of using the color wheel to put colors together:
    • Monochromatic
    • Complementary
    • Analogous
    • Warm and cool
  48. Complementary
    • Opposite on the color wheel
    • Provide high contrast
  49. Warm colors
    • Found on the right side of the color wheel
    • Make objects look closer; appear to advance
    • Might give a nervous impression if overdone
  50. Cool colors
    • Found on the left side of the color wheel
    • Tend to recede
    • Can be depressing
  51. What do we take into consideration when planning colors?
    • Age and life stage
    • Fashion level
    • Skin tone
    • Ethnicity
    • Geographical location
    • End use
  52. How do we find our colors?
    • Pantone books
    • Color forecasts
    • Experts
    • Competitors
    • Shopping
  53. Color merchandising strategies
    • Carry-over colors
    • Basic colors plus some fashion "pop" colors
    • Primary color story with secondary colors
  54. How do we represent our colors to fabric producers?
    • Pantone number
    • Threads
    • Fabric swatch
  55. Color management
    • Lab dips
    • Light machines
    • Color measurement equipment can provide consistent accurate results
  56. Factors affecting color management
    • Fabric
    • Human vision
    • Fabric finishes
    • Color calibration
    • Light source
  57. Dyeing process
    • Piece dyed
    • Garment dyed
    • Yarn dyed
    • Fiber dyed
  58. Color standard
    Exact color swatch that all fabric, prints, and patterns must match
  59. Lab dip
    Test for dying yarns or piece dyed fabric
  60. Strike off
    Test for printed fabric
  61. Handloom
    Test for patterned fabric
  62. Technical developments in fabrics
    • Goretex (waterproof breathable)
    • Stretch leather
    • Coolfix (helps prevent sweating)
    • Washable silks
  63. Selecting our "fabric story"
    • Consider:
    • Silhouettes to be used
    • Target market
    • Climate
    • Season
    • End use
  64. Basics
    • Traditional marketable fabrics that change little from year to year
    • The core fabrications in a group
  65. Novelties
    • Unusual prints, patterns
    • Usually unique in design (more expensive)
  66. Fabric for branded lines
    • Attend shows, form relationships with fabric suppliers
    • Good suppliers present new fabrics to fit customer's market
    • PD team purchases sample yardage
    • Production yardage purchased after fabric is "adopted"
    • Basic fabrics are purchased and dyed into the colors of the line
    • Novelty fabrics are developed in colors & prints specified by PD team
  67. Overseas production (fabric)
    • Offer a full package including the fabric
    • Fabric supplier is specified by the PD team
  68. Domestic production (fabric)
    • PD takes ownership of fabric prior to cutting
    • Typically only CMT is contracted
  69. Fabric surface interest
    • Color
    • Texture
    • Luster
    • Patterns
  70. Texture
    • High/low knits or wovens
    • Felting
    • Brushing
    • Sueding
  71. Pattern
    • Fabric construction
    • Print
  72. Types of fibers (3)
    • Natural (cotton, wool, silk, linen)
    • Cellulosic (rayon, tencil)
    • Petroleum based (polyester, nylon, acrylic)
  73. Types of fabrics (3)
    • Woven
    • Knit
    • Felting
  74. Woven fabric
    • Lengthwise yarn (warp)
    • Crosswise yarns (weft/fill)
    • Edge = selvage
    • Ex: twill, canvas, sheeting
  75. Types of weave
    • Plain - taffeta
    • Twill - diagonal pattern
    • Satin - "silky" feel
  76. Knitted fabric construction
    • Interlocking loops
    • Measured by gauge (coarser knit = lower gauge) and weight
    • Ex: jersey, pique, rib, interlock
  77. Diff between woven/knits (fabric construction)
    • Woven = at least two separate groups of yarn
    • Knitting = can use one yarn only
  78. Diff between woven/knits (elasticity)
    Knitted fabric = more elasticity than woven
  79. Diff between woven/knits (fabric density & cover)
    • Woven = higher coverage
    • Knitted = looser in structure
  80. Diff between woven/knits (thickness & handle)
    Knitted = thicker, softer
  81. Diff between woven/knits (production cost)
    • Weaving = expensive preparation processes
    • Knitting = higher production rate
  82. Social/environmental benefits of organic cotton
    • Decreases pollution
    • Improves soil fertility
    • Prevents water, soil, and air contamination
  83. Hemp
    • The only complete substitute of cotton for heavy weight products
    • Eco-friendly substitute for linen
    • Stronger than cotton
    • Stain, mold, moth, fire resistant
  84. Print
    Dye stuff applied to fabric surface of a complete fabric or garment
  85. Pattern
    Created at the knitting or weaving stage
  86. Where do we get prints?
    • Purchase from freelance textile designer
    • Purchase fabric suppliers' existing prints
    • In-house design (create our own)
  87. Things to consider when developing a print...
    • Target customer
    • End use
    • Season
    • Trends
    • Carry-over
    • Competition
    • Cost of development
  88. Print techniques
    • Roller printing
    • Rotary screen printing
    • Block printing
    • Heat transfer printing
    • Dye sublimation printing
    • Flat (silk) screen printing
    • Resist printing
  89. Rollar and rotary printing
    • Print paste pressed between fabric and engraved roller
    • Most common methods
    • Achieves a high quality of print
    • Can produce long runs of fabric; good for mass production
  90. Block printing
    Wooden blocks applied to fabric with careful registration
  91. Heat transfer
    • Transfer image to fabric from a paper carrier using heat and pressure
    • Can be topical or absorbed
  92. Flat (silk) screen printing
    Squeegee moves across a screen on which print paste has been applied, forcing the paste through the screen and onto the fabric
  93. Resist dyeing / printing
    • Methods are used to prevent the dye from reaching all the cloth, thereby creating a pattern
    • Ex: tie-dye, batik
  94. One-way print layout
    • Motifs face same direction
    • Print design has a definite top and bottom
    • Can create more wastage of fabric
  95. Two-way print layout
    • Motifs alternated up and down
    • No top or bottom
    • Easier to lay out the patterns (less wastage)
  96. Conversational prints
    • Novelty print designs that have a theme, scene, or some special design
    • Often used in children's market
  97. Companion prints
    • Two or more prints that can be merchandised together
    • Ex: border print and body print
  98. Engineered prints
    • Designs that are intended to fall in exactly the same place on each garment
    • Lots of wastage = expensive
  99. Colorway
    Describes the various color combinations in a pattern or print
  100. Knit downs
    A trial swatch of a yarn-dyed knitted fabric
  101. Marker
    • Guides for cutting
    • Created based on graded patterns

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