Identify the ethical problems in the study: In 1963, live cancer cells were injected into senile patients in a chronic disease hospital, as part of a study on cancer immunity. The patients had no knowledge of what they were being injected with. Since the investigators believed the cells would be rejected, the researchers did not inform the patients or seek consent, because they did not want to frighten them.
- Lack of informed consent
- Withholding information
- Putting subjects at risk
- Exploitation of a vulnerable group
- Risks to subjects outweighted benefits