vitamin toxicities.txt

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vitamin toxicities.txt
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  1. Protein function:
    • Anabolism of tissue proteins;
    • helps maintain fluid balance;
    • energy source;
    • formation of immunoglobulins;
    • maintenance of acid-base balance;
    • important part of enzymes and hormones
  2. Protein deficiency
    • Kwashiorkor-edema;
    • reddish pigmentation of hair and skin;
    • fatty liver;
    • retardation of growth in children;
    • diarrhea;
    • dermatosis;
    • decreased T-cell lymphocytes with increased secondary infections;
  3. protein toxicity
    • Azotemia;
    • acidosis;
    • hyperammonemia
  4. Protein food sources
    Breast milk, infant formula, meat, fish, poultry, egg yolk, cheese, yogurt, legumes
  5. CHO function
    • Major energy source;
    • protein sparing;
    • necessary for normal fat metabolism;
    • glucose is the sole source of energy for the brain;
    • many sources also provide dietary fiber
  6. CHO deficiency
    Ketosis
  7. Fat function
    • Concentrated energy source;
    • protein sparing;
    • insulation for temperature maintenance;
    • supplies essential fatty acids;
    • carries fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K
  8. Fat deficiency
    • Eczema;
    • low growth rate in infants;
    • lowered resistance in infection;
    • hair loss
  9. Vitamin D function
    • Necessary for the formation of normal bone;
    • promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the intestines
  10. Vitamin D Deficiency
    • Rickets
    • (symptoms:
    • - costochondral beading,
    • - epiphyseal enlargement,
    • - cranial bossing,
    • - bowed legs,
    • - persistently open anterior fontanelle)
  11. Vitamin D toxicity
    • Abnormally high blood calcium (hypercalcemia),
    • retarded growth,
    • vomiting,
    • nephrocalcinosis
  12. vitamin D food sources
    Infant formula, egg yolk, liver, fatty fish, sunlight (activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin)
  13. Vitamin A function
    • Preserves integrity of epithelial cells;
    • formation of rhodopsin for vision in dim light;
    • necessary for wound healing, growth, and normal immune function
  14. Vitamin A deficiency
    • Night blindness,
    • dry eyes,
    • poor bone growth,
    • impaired resistance to infection,
    • papillary hyperkeratosis of the skin
  15. Vitamin A toxicity
    • abdominal pain;
    • bone pain;
    • dry and fissured skin;
    • Fatigue;
    • headache;
    • hypercalcemia
    • hyperpigmentation;
    • jaundice;
    • night sweats;
    • retarded growth;
    • vertigo;
    • vomiting;
  16. vitamin A food choices
    Breast milk, infant formula, liver, egg yolk, dark green and deep yellow vegetables and fruits
  17. Vitamin E Function
    • May function as an antioxidant in the tissues;
    • may have a role as a coenzyme;
    • neuromuscular function
  18. Vitamin E deficiency
    Hemolytic anemia in the premature and newborn; hyporeflexia, and spinocerebellar and retinal degeneration
  19. vitamin E toxicity
    • May interfere with vitamin K activity leading to prolonged clotting and bleeding time; in anemia,
    • suppresses the normal hematologic response to iron
  20. vitamin E food sources
    Breast milk; infant formula; vegetable oils; liver; egg yolk; butter; green leafy vegetables; whole-grain breads, cereals, and other fortified or enriched grain products; wheat germ
  21. vitamin K function
    • Catalyzes prothrombin synthesis;
    • required in the synthesis of other blood clotting factors;
    • synthesis by intestinal bacteria
  22. vitamin K deficiency
    • Prolonged bleeding and prothrombin time;
    • hemorrhagic manifestations (especially in newborns)
  23. Vitamin K toxicity
    • Possible hemolytic anemia;
    • hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice)
  24. Vitamin K food sources
    Infant formula, vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables, pork, liver
  25. vitamin C function
    • Essential in the synthesis of collagen (thus, strengthens tissues and improves wound healing and resistance to infection);
    • iron absorption and transport;
    • watersoluble antioxidant;
    • functions in folacin metabolism
  26. vitamin C deficiency
    • Scurvy,
    • osmotic diarrhea
    • pinpoint peripheral hemorrhages,
    • bleeding gums,
  27. vitamin C toxicity
    • Nausea,
    • abdominal cramps,
    • diarrhea,
    • possible formation of kidney stones
  28. Vitamin C food sources
    Breast milk, infant formula, fruits (especially citrus fruits, papaya, cantaloupe, strawberries), vegetables (potatoes, cabbage)
  29. vitamin b12 function
    • Essential for biosynthesis of nucleic acids and nucleoproteins;
    • RBC maturation;
    • involved with folate metabolism;
    • central nervous system metabolism
  30. vitamin B12 deficiency
    • Pernicious anemia;
    • neurologic deterioration
  31. folate function
    Essential in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids; necessary for the normal maturation of red blood cells
  32. vitamin b12 food sources
    Infant formula, breast milk, meat, fish, poultry, cheese, egg yolk, liver
  33. folate deficiency
    • Poor growth; megaloblastic anemia (concurrent deficiency of vitamin B12 should be suspected);
    • impaired cellular immunity
  34. folate toxicity
    Masking of B12 deficiency symptoms in those with pernicious anemia not receiving cyanocobalamin
  35. folate food sources
    Breast milk; infant formula; liver; green leafy vegetables; legumes; whole-grain breads, cereals, and fortified or enriched grain products; legumes; oranges; cantaloupe; lean beef
  36. B6/pyridoxine function
    Aids in the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids from essential fatty acids; essential for conversion of tryptophan to niacin; essential for normal growth
  37. B6/pyridoxine deficiency
    • Microcytic anemia;
    • convulsions;
    • irritability
  38. B6/pyridoxine toxicity
    Sensory neuropathy with progressive ataxia; photosensitivity
  39. B6/pyridoxine Food sources
    Breast milk; infant formula; liver; meat; whole-grain breads, cereals, or other grain products; legumes; potatoes
  40. B1/thiamin function
    • Combines with phosphorus to form thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) necessary for metabolism of protein, carbohydrate, and fat;
    • essential for growth, normal appetite, digestion, and healthy nerves
  41. B1/thiamin deficiency
    • Beriberi,
    • edema,
    • neuritis,
    • cardiac failure
  42. B1/thiamin food sources
    Breast milk; infant formula; lean pork; wheat germ; whole-grain and enriched breads, cereals, and other grain products; legumes; potatoes
  43. Riboflavin/B2 function
    • Essential for growth;
    • plays enzymatic role in tissue respiration and acts as a transporter of hydrogen ions;
    • synthesis of FMN and FAD
  44. Riboflavin/B2 deficiency
    • Photophobia,
    • cheilosis,
    • glossitis,
    • corneal vascularization,
    • poor growth
  45. Riboflavin/B2 food sources
    Breast milk; infant formula, meat; dairy products; egg yolk; legumes; green vegetables; whole-grain breads, cereals, and fortified or enriched grain products
  46. niacin function
    • Part of the enzyme system for oxidation, energy release;
    • necessary for synthesis of glycogen and the synthesis and breakdown of fatty acids
  47. niacin deficiency
    Pellegra: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death
  48. niacin toxicity
    • Transient due to the vasodilating effects of niacin (does not occur with niacinamide)-flushing, tingling, dizziness, nausea;
    • liver abnormalities;
    • hyperuricemia;
    • decreased LDL and increased HDL cholesterol
  49. niacin food sources
    Breast milk; infant formula;meat; poultry; fish; whole-grain breads, cereals, and fortified or enriched grain products; egg yolk
  50. calcium function
    • Builds and maintains bones and teeth;
    • essential in clotting of blood;
    • influences transmission of ions across cell membranes;
    • required in nerve transmission
  51. calcium deficiency
    Rickets - abnormal development of bones.
  52. calcium toxicity
    • Excessive calcification of bone;
    • calcification of soft tissue;
    • hypercalcemia;
    • vomiting;
    • lethargy
  53. calcium major food sources
    Breast milk, infant formula, yogurt, cheese, fortified or enriched grain products, some green leafy vegetables (such as collards, kale mustard greens, and turnip greens), tofu (if made with calcium sulfate), sardines, salmon
  54. Iron function
    • Essential for the formation of hemoglobin and oxygen transport;
    • increases resistance to infection;
    • functions as part of enzymes involved in tissue respiration.
  55. Iron deficiency
    • Hypochromic microcytic anemia;
    • malabsorption;
    • irritability;
    • anorexia;
    • pallor,
    • lethargy
  56. Iron toxicity
    • Hemochromatosis;
    • hemosiderosis.
  57. Iron food sources
    Breast milk; infant formula; meat; liver; legumes; wholegrain breads, cereals, or fortified or enriched grain products; and dark green vegetables
  58. zinc function
    Component of many enzyme systems and insulin
  59. zinc deficiency
    • Decreased wound healing,
    • hypogonadism,
    • mild anemia,
    • decreased taste acuity,
    • hair loss,
    • diarrhea,
    • growth failure,
    • skin changes
  60. zinc toxicity
    • Acute gastrointestinal upset;
    • vomiting;
    • sweating;
    • dizziness;
    • copper deficiency
  61. zincfood sources
    Breast milk; infant formula; meat; liver; egg yolk; oysters and other seafood; whole-grain breads, cereals, and other fortified or enriched grain products; legumes
  62. Fluoride function
    • Helps protect teeth against tooth decay;
    • may minimize bone loss
  63. Fluoride deficiency
    Increased dental caries
  64. Fluoride toxicity
    • Mottled, discolored teeth;
    • possible increase in bone density;
    • calcified muscle insertions and exotosis
  65. Fluoride food sources
    Fluoridated water
  66. Chloride function
    • Helps regulate acid-base equilibrium and osmotic pressure of body fluids;
    • component of gastric juices
  67. Chloride deficiency
    Usually accompanied by sodium depletion; see Sodium
  68. Chloride food sources
    Breast milk, infant formula, sodium chloride (table salt)
  69. Chromium function
    • Required for normal glucose metabolism;
    • insulin cofactor
  70. Chromium deficiency
    • Glucose intolerance;
    • impaired growth;
    • peripheral neuropathy;
    • negative nitrogen balance;
    • decreased respiratory quotient
  71. Chromium food sources
    Meat; whole-grain breads, cereals, and other fortified or enriched grain products; brewer's yeast; corn oil
  72. cooper function
    • Facilitates the function of many enzymes and iron;
    • may be an integral part of RNA, DNA molecules
  73. cooper deficiency
    retarded growth, anorexia, Pallor,edema,
  74. cooper toxicity
    • Wilson's disease - copper deposits, in the cornea;
    • cirrhosis of liver;
    • deterioration of neurological processes
  75. cooper food sources
    Liver; kidney; poultry; shellfish; legumes; whole-grain breads, cereals, and other grain products
  76. Iodine function
    • Helps regulate thyroid hormones;
    • important in regulation of cellular oxidation and growth
  77. Iodine deficiency
    • Endemic goiter;
    • depressed thyroid function;
    • cretinism
  78. Iodine toxicity
    Possible thyroid enlargement
  79. Iodine food sources
    Breast milk, infant formula, seafood, iodized salt
  80. Magnesium function
    Required for many coenzyme oxidation-phosphorylation reactions, nerve impulse transmissions, and for muscle contraction
  81. Magnesium deficiency
    • MITCH
    • Muscle tremors;
    • irritability;
    • tetany;
    • convulsions;
    • hyper-or hypoflexia
  82. Magnesium toxicity
    Diarrhea; transient Hypocalcemia
  83. Magnesium food sources
    Breast milk; infant formula; whole-grain breads, cereals, and other grain products; tofu; legumes; green vegetables
  84. manganese function
    Essential part of several enzyme systems involved in protein and energy metabolism
  85. manganese deficiency
    • (managenese def is a SIN)
    • skeletal abnormalities
    • Impaired growth
    • neonatal ataxia
  86. manganese toxicity
    • In extremely high exposure from contamination:
    • severe psychiatric and neurologic disorders
  87. manganese function
    Whole-grain breads, cereals, and other grain products; legumes; fruits; vegetables (leafy)
  88. molybdenum function
    Part of the enzymes xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase, possibly helps reduce incidence of dental caries
  89. molybdenum toxicity
    Goutlike syndrome
  90. molybdenum food sources
    Organ meats; breads, cereals, and other grain products; dark green leafy vegetables; legumes
  91. phosphorus function
    • Builds and maintains bones and teeth;
    • component of nucleic acids, phospholipids;
    • as coenzyme functions in energy metabolism;
    • buffers intracellular fluid
  92. phosphorus deficiency
    Phosphate depletion unusual effects renal, neuromuscular, skeletal systems as well as blood chemistries
  93. phosphorus toxicity
    Hypocalcemia (when parathyroid gland not fully functioning)
  94. phosphorus food sources
    Breast milk; infant formula; cheese; egg yolk; meat; poultry; fish; whole-grain breads, cereals, and other grain products; legumes
  95. potassium function
    • Helps regulate acid-base equilibrium and osmotic pressure of body fluids;
    • influences muscle activity, especially cardiac muscle
  96. potassium deficiency
    • Muscle weakness;
    • respiratory failure
    • decreased intestinal tone and distension;
    • cardiac arrhythmias;
  97. potassium food sources
    Breast milk; infant formula; fruits especially orange juice, bananas, and dried fruits; yogurt; potatoes; meat; fish; poultry; soy products; vegetables
  98. selenium function
    • May be essential to tissue respiration;
    • associated with fat metabolism and vitamin E;
    • acts as an antioxidant
  99. selenium deficiency
    • Myalgia;
    • muscle tenderness;
    • cardiac myopathy;
    • increased fragility of red blood cells;
    • degeneration of pancreas
  100. selenium sources
    Whole-grain breads, cereals, and other fortified or enriched grain products; onions; meats; seafood; dependent on soil content - vegetables
  101. sodium function
    • Helps regulate acid-base equilibrium and osmotic pressure of body fluids;
    • plays a role in normal muscle irritability and contractility;
    • influences cell permeability
  102. sodium deficiency
    Nausea; cramps; vomiting; dizziness; apathy; exhaustion; possible respiratory failure
  103. sodium food sources
    Sodium chloride (table salt), abundant in most foods except fruit pantothenic acid function. Functions in the synthesis and breakdown of many vital body compounds; essential in the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein
  104. pantothenic acid deficiency
    Fatigue; sleep disturbances; nausea; muscle cramps; impaired coordination; loss of antibody production
  105. pantothenic acid toxicity
    Diarrhea; water retention Breast milk; infant formula;
  106. pantothenic acid food sources
    meat; fish; poultry; liver; egg yolk; yeast; whole-grain breads, cereals, and other grain products; legumes; vegetables
  107. biotin function
    Essential component of enzymes; important in reactions involving the lengthening of carbon chains; coenzyme carrier of carbon dioxide; plays an important role in the metabolism of fatty acids and amino acids
  108. biotin deficiency
    Seborrheic dermatitis; glossitis; nausea; insomnia;
  109. biotin food sources
    Breast milk, infant formula, liver, meat, egg yolk, yeast, bananas, most vegetables, strawberries, grapefruit, watermelon,

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