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  1. Standardized Recipe
    • A recipe that has been carefully tested under controlled conditions
    • A recipe is considered this only when it has been adapted for use by a specific foodservice
  2. Format
    An orderly arrangement of the recipe information should be developed
  3. Cooking Time & Temperature
    This is often listed at the top of the page so preheating the oven and scheduling of cooking can be determined without reading the entire recipe
  4. Ingredients & Quantities
    • Names of ingredients are usually listed on the left side of the recipe with the quantities arranged in one or more columns to accommodate different yields
    • As purchased (AP)
    • Edible portion (EP)
  5. Procedures
    • Directions for preparation should be listed in logical steps
    • Timing should be provided for some procedures.
    • The recipe should be tested before being served to customers
  6. Recipe Yield
    A measure of the total amount produced by a recipe
  7. Quality Standards
    Measurable statements of the aesthetic characteristics of food items that serve as the basis for sensory analysis of the food product
  8. Recipe Adjustment: Factor Method
    Quantities of ingredients in the original recipe are multiplied by a conversion factor
  9. Recipe Adjustment: Percentage Method
    • The percentage of the total weight of the product is calculated for each ingredient.
    • Typically used for baked goods
    • Accurate
  10. Factor Method
    • Convert ingredients to whole numbers and decimal equivalents
    • –2 lb 10 oz would be converted to 2.6 lb
    • Typically one decimal place is used in a recipe (unless decimal amount is less than one lb)
    • Divide the desired yield by the recipe yield to determine the conversion factor
    • Multiply all recipe ingredients by the conversion factor
    • Reconvert the decimal unit back to pounds and ounces or quarts and cups
    • Round off amounts to quantities simple to weigh and measure
    • Check math for possible errors
  11. Percentage Method
    • Convert all ingredients from measure to weights
    • Total the weight of the ingredients
    • Calculate the percentage of each ingredient in the recipe in relation to the total weight
    • Check the ratio of ingredients
    • Establish the weight needed to provide the desired number of servings, which will be in relation to pan size, portion weight, or equipment capacity
    • Multiply each ingredient percentage number by the total weight to give the exact amount of each ingredient needed
  12. Recipe Formulation: Small Portion to Large
    • Step 1: Prepare the product in the amount of the original recipe
    • Step 2: Evaluate the product
    • Step 3: Double or expand the recipe, evaluate
    • Step 4: Double or expand the recipe again, evaluate
    • Step 5: If satisfactory at this point, enlarge the recipe by increments of 25%
  13. Quantities to Produce
    • A general procedure for determining amounts of meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables follows:
    • Step 1: Determine the portion size in ounces
    • Step 2: Multiply portion size by estimated number to be served and convert to pounds. This is the edible portion (EP)
    • Step 3: To determine the amount to order divide the EP by the yield percentage
    • Step 4: Convert the amount needed to purchase units
  14. Portion Control
    • Standardized portions are important to cost control, and creating and maintaining customer satisfaction
    • Employees should know the number of servings expected from a certain batch size and be familiar with the size of the portion
  15. Foodborne Illness
    A disease carried or transmitted to people via food
  16. Outbreak
    An incidence of foodborne illness that involves two or more people who ate a common food, which ahs been confirmed through laboratory analysis as the source it
  17. Potentially Hazardous Foods
    • Foods more likely than others to cause foodborne illness
    • Food that is natural or synthetic and requires temperature control because it is in the form capable of supporting: Rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms
  18. Foodborne Infection
    • Illness that results from ingesting foods containing live microorganisms
    • Salmonellae
    • Campylobactor jejuni
    • Esherichia coli
    • Listeria monocytogenes
  19. Salmonella
    • Bacterial infection
    • Intestinal tract of animals and humans is the principle reservoir
    • Symptoms: nausea, fever, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea (8 12 hours after eating)
    • Primary sources: poultry and poultry products, raw beef, pork, and eggs
    • Cooking will kill it and avoid cross-contamination
  20. Campylobactor jejuni
    • Bacterial Infection
    • Symptoms: watery, bloody, diarrhea (2-5 days after eating)
    • Common foods: raw chicken, raw milk, raw meat
    • Cook foods thoroughly, avoid cross-contamination
  21. Escherichia coli
    • Found in feces of humans and animals and therefore may contaminate soil, water, and food plants
    • Symptoms: bloody diarrhea followed by kidney failure and hemolytic uremic syndrome in severe cases, no fever (2-5 days after eating)
    • Common foods: undercooked hamburger, raw milk, unpasteurized apple cider, lettuce
    • Properly handle and cook foods thoroughly
  22. Listeria monocytogenes
    • Bacterial infection (can grow at refrigerated temperatures)
    • Symptoms – flu-like (1-3 days)
    • Common foods: raw milk, soft cheese, dairy, raw meat, refrigerated ready to eat foods, processed read to eat meats, raw vegetables and seafood
    • Properly cook foods, avoid cross-contamination, rotate processed refrigerated foods
  23. Foodborne Intoxication
    • Illness that results from ingesting toxins produced by organisms
    • Stapylococcus aureas
    • Clostridium botulinum
    • Clostridium perfringens
    • Emerging pathogens
  24. Emerging Pathogens
    A pathogen that is increasingly recognized as causing foodborne illness
  25. Staphylococcus aureas
    • Bacterial Intoxication (produces a heat stable toxin)
    • Commonly found on human skin, hands, hair and nose and throat, burns and wounds
    • Symptoms – nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headaches (30 minutes-8 hours)
    • Common foods – foods prepared with human contact, cooked, or processed foods
    • Wash hands, practice good hygiene- cooking WILL NOT inactivate the toxin
  26. Clostridium botulism
    • Produces a heat resistant neurotoxin
    • Symptoms – dizziness, double vision, difficulty breathing and swallowing, headache (4-36 hours)
    • Common foods – improperly canned foods, vacuum packed refrigerated foods
    • Properly heat process packed foods
  27. Clostridium perfringens
    • Bacterial toxin-mediated infection (ingested cells colonize and produce a toxin in the GI tract)
    • Symptoms – intense abdominal pain and severe diarrhea (8-12 hours)
    • Common foods – meat (improperly cooled or reheated), spices, gravy, improperly cooled foods
    • Properly cook, cool, and reheat foods
  28. Viruses Causing Foodborne Illness
    • Hepatitis A
    • Norwalk
    • Rotavirus
  29. Hepatitis A
    • Viral infection
    • Food workers can harbor it up to 6 weeks and show no symptoms
    • Symptoms – fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, swelling of liver, jaundice (15-50 days)
    • Common foods – foods that are prepared with human contact, contaminated water
    • Wash hands, avoid raw seafood
  30. Norwalk Virus
    • Viral Infection
    • Symptoms – vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, low grade fever (24-28 hours)
    • Common foods – sewage, contaminated water, contaminated salad ingredients, raw clams and oysters, infected workers
    • Cook all shellfish, handle food properly
  31. Rotavirus
    • Viral infection
    • Symptoms – diarrhea (especially in infants and children), vomiting, low grade fever (1-3 days)
    • Common foods – sewage contaminated water, contaminated salad ingredients, raw seafood
    • Good personal hygiene, proper food handling procedures
  32. Chemical Causes of Foodborne Illness
    • Cleaning and sanitizing compounds
    • Contamination of food with toxic metals
  33. Physical Causes of Foodborne Illness
    Material or foreign contaminants that are accidentally introduced into foods
  34. Role of Food Manager
    • Design, implement, and maintain an effective food safety program
    • Train, motivate, and supervise employees
  35. Proper Food Handling
    • Legal safeguards for food handling are provided by: federal, state, and local regulatory agencies
    • The NSF’s frequently cited factors in outbreaks of foodborne illness:
    • •Failure to cool food properly
    • •Failure to heat or cook food
    • •Infected employees practicing poor personal hygiene
    • •Foods prepared a day or more before being served
    • •Raw, contaminated ingredients
    • •Food held at bacteria-growing temperatures
    • •Cross-contamination of cooked and raw foods
  36. Temperature Measuring Devices
    • Checking incoming deliveries to make sure food was transported at proper temp
    • During all phases of storage, production, holding and service
    • Should be calibrated regularly
    • Cleaned and sanitized after each use
  37. Food Code
    • FDA publishes this
    • Model for retail food programs that are sponsored by federal, state, local, and tribal agencies
    • NOT a federal law( can’t follow the food code not a criminal offense)
    • IS a set of recommendations put forth to promote food safety and sanitation nationwide
  38. Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Point
    • A preventative food safety program
    • It originated over 40 years ago when the Pillsbury Company worked to create food for NASA
    • Seven principles which provide guidance on the development of this plan and, unique to this, the principles must be documented
  39. HACCP: Principle 1
    • Identify hazards and asses their severity and risks
    • Chemicals next to food products like sugar/salt
  40. HACCP: Principle 2
    • Identify the critical control points (CCP) or points where loss of control could result in a health risk
    • Example: CCP for raw chicken would be the final cooking step because this is the last opportunity to limit and reduce salmonella to a safe level
  41. HACCP: Principle 3
    • Establish critical limits such as time and end point cooking temperatures
    • Temperatures should be established for cooking procedures
  42. HACCP: Principle 4
    • Establish procedures to monitor CCPs
    • Examples may include visual evaluation and time-temp measurements
  43. HACCP: Principle 5
    • Establish corrective action to be taken
    • When monitoring shows that a critical limit has been exceeded
    • Example: receiving procedures should indicate that frozen products with evidence of thawing should be rejected
  44. HACCP: Principle 6
    • Establish effective record keeping systems
    • If someone gets sick and complains
    • Receiving records, temperature charts, and recipes serve as documentation
  45. HACCP: Principle 7
    • Establish procedures to verify the system is working
    • Review records on a timely, routine basis or conduct microbiological tests
  46. The Physical Plant
    • Features that facilitate easy cleaning should be built in at the time of construction
    • Water safety can be checked at the local health department
    • Trash should be removed daily and containers cleaned daily
    • Adequate and easily accessible hand washing facilities and rest rooms are required
    • Each piece of equipment that comes into contact with food should be readily cleanable
  47. Equipment Design & Place
    • Clean in place
    • Clean out of place
    • Manual cleaning
  48. Clean in Place
    • A method of cleaning that requires no disassembly
    • Tilt skillet
  49. Clean out of Place
    • A method of cleaning whereby equipment can be partially disassembled for cleaning
    • Oven and oven racks
  50. Manual Cleaning
    • Requires full disassembly
    • Robocoupe
  51. Cleaning
    The physical removal of visible soil and food from a surface
  52. Sanitizing
    Reduces the number of potentially harmful microorganisms to safe levels on food contacts surfaces
  53. Principles of Cleaning
    • A detergent is put in contact with a soiled surface
    • Pressure is applied by water or a scrub brush to penetrate the soil so it can be removed by rinsing
  54. Detergents
    • 3 Basic Phases
    • Penetration
    • Suspension
    • Rinsing agent
  55. Detergents: Penetration
    • The cleaning agent must penetrate between the layers of soil and the surface to which it adheres (cut through the dirt)
    • Wetting:the action above that reduces surface tension and makes penetration possible
  56. Detergents: Suspension
    • The action of a cleaning agent required to hold the loosened soil in the washing solution so it can be flushed away and not redeposited
    • Saponify
    • Sequestering
  57. Saponify
    To turn fatsinto soap by reaction with an alkali
  58. Sequestering
    The isolating ofsubstances such as a chemical ion so it cannot react
  59. Detergents: Rinsing Agent
    Designed to remove and flush away solid and cleaners so they are not redeposited on surfaces being washed
  60. Solvent Cleaners
    Alkaline-based cleaners used to clean surfaces soiled with grease
  61. Acid Cleaners
    Lime build-up and rust are treated with this
  62. Abrasives
    Used for tough soils that do not respond to solvents or acids
  63. Principles of Sanitation
    • Immediately after cleaning, all food contact surfaces must be sanitized
    • Heat sanitizing
    • Chemical sanitizing
  64. Heat Sanitizing
    The objective is to expose the clean surface to high heat between 162-180°F
  65. Chemical Sanitizing
    • The object can either be immersed in a solution or the object can be sprayed or rinsed with the solution
    • If bleached base, it has to be measured out as 50 parts per million in a sink, on a surface-100 parts per million
    • Quat solution 100 parts per million in sink, 200 parts per million on a surface
  66. Dishwashing
    • Requires a two-part operation, cleaning and sanitizing
    • Wash, rinse, sanitize
  67. Organization & Scheduling
    • Begins with a list of duties to be performed daily, weekly, and monthly
    • Regular cleaning, such as counter tops and floors needs to be done daily
    • Other tasks to be done less frequently include cleaning hoods and walls
    • A cleaning schedule should be a step-by-step list of what to do, how to do it, and who is to do it
  68. Pest Control
    • Rats, mice, flies, roaches, grain insects, fruit flies, and gnats all can carry communicable diseases
    • Two conditions: food and harborage, are required for these pests to live
    • Constant alertness to signs of pests, and prevention of the above conditions can prevent pest problems in foodservice facilities
  69. Checks & Inspections
    • By setting high departmental standards and conducting routine self-inspections, management can be assured that sanitation regulations are met
    • All foodservice operations are regulated by.
    • Official inspections are conducted on a periodic, monthly, or annual basis
  70. Occupational Safety & Health Act
    • Became effective in 1971, makes it illegal not to have a safe establishment
    • Hazard communication standard
    • Bloodborne pathogen standard
  71. Hazard Communication Standard
    • Also recognized as “right to know;” this requires employers to develop and implement a program to communicate chemical hazards to all employees
    • The manufacturer must supply, for each chemical, a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) that identifies the chemical and includes a hazard warning
  72. Bloodborne Pathogen Standard
    • Requires that all employees be made aware of potentially infectious materials that they may be exposed to while on duty
    • Examples of pathogens include the hepatitis B virus and the HIV virus
  73. Worker Safety
    An accident in the workplace has become a symbol of inefficiency and usually represents a monetary loss to the organization
  74. Safety Program
    • Specific topics for a safety campaign may be centered around the three Es of safety
    • Engineering
    • Education
    • Enforcement
  75. Safety Program: Engineering
    Refers to the built-in safety features of the building and equipment
  76. Safety Program: Education
    Begins with the establishment of firm policies regarding safety, and then ongoing documented safety training
  77. Safety Program: Enforcement
    Refers to the follow-up required to prevent carelessness and make sure rules and policies are being followed
  78. Class A
    • Ordinary combustibles
    • Wood, paper, trash having glowing embers
    • Use water type extinguishers
  79. Class B
    • Flammable liquids
    • Gasoline, oil, paints, grease, etc
    • Use foam, carbon dioxide, or sodium/potassium bicarbonate extinguishers
  80. Class C
    • Electrical equipment
    • Uses carbon dioxide, sodium/potassium bicarbonate extinguishers
  81. Class D
    • Combustible metals
    • Uses special extinguishing agents
  82. Customer Protection
    • Customers deserve the same concern, with respect to safety, as employees
    • For example, the parking area should be well-lighted and furniture in good repair
    • Servers should be trained on proper serving procedures to prevent spills and on the Heimlich maneuver
    • Managers are liable for accidents on the premises
  83. Sexual Harrassment
    • The law holds only the employer liable; an employee is not liable
    • Unwanted sexual advances, or casual, verbal, or physical conduct of a sexual nature
    • Quid pro quo
    • Hostile environment
    • Third party
  84. Quid Pro Quo
    When a supervisor either rewards or punishes a subordinate for providing or not providing sexual favors
  85. Hostile Environment
    • When an employee’s ability to work, take pride in their work, or desire to stay in the position is undermined by an atmosphere infused with unwelcome sexually oriented or otherwise hostile conduct created by a supervisor or coworkers
    • Factors that courts consider as creating one
    • Sexually oriented comments, photos, or graphics
    • Unwanted verbal or physical contact
    • The frequency or pervasiveness of the misconduct
    • Employer’s failure to investigate complaints and take quick corrective action
  86. Third Party
    Involves a customer or client and an employee
Card Set:
2012-03-21 04:04:54

Food Management
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