Improved on EDO, but was rarely used. You might encounter it on some 72-pin SIMMs or 168-pin DIMMs
Burst EDO (BEDO)
A method of measuring access timing to memory, which is the number of clock cycles required to write or read a row of data off a memory module. CAS stands for Column Access Strobe.
CAS Latency (CL)
A placeholder RIMM module that provides continuity so that every RIMM slot is filled.
C-RIMM (Continuity RIMM)
An improved version of SDRAM
A version of SDRAM that is faster than DDR and uses less power
An improvement over DDR and DDR2 that is faster and uses less power
A memory technology by Rambus and Intel that uses a narrow network-type system bus. Memory is stored on a RIMM module. Also called RDRAM or Direct RDRAM
Direct Rambus DRAM
A type of memory technology used on DIMMs that runs at twice the speed of the system clock
Double Data Rate SDRAM
A DIMM with memory chips installed on both sides of the module
A motherboard feature that improves memory performance by providing two 64-bit channels between memory and the chipset.
Double-sided DIMMs that provide two 64-bit banks
A chipset feature on a motherboard that checks the integrity of data stored on DIMMs or RIMMs and can correct single-bit errors in a byte. More advanced can detect, but not correct, double-bit errors in a byte
ECC (error-correcting code)
A type of outdated RAM that was faster than conventional RAM because it eliminated the delay before it issued the next memory address
EDO (extended data out)
Can be used with 30-pin or 72-pin SIMMs or some really old 168-pin DIMMs.
FPM (fast page memory)
A Windows error that occurs when a program attempts to access a memory address that is not available or is no longer assigned to it
General Protection Fault (GPF)
The memory a processor addresses at one time and is 64 bits wide
An error-checking scheme in which a ninth, or "parity," bit is added. The value of the parity bit is set to either 0 or 1 to provide an even number of ones for even parity and an odd number of ones for odd parity
An error that occurs when the number of 1s in the byte is not in agreement with the expected number.
A method of measuring access timing to memory, which is the number of clock cycles required to write or read a row of data off a memory module.
RAS (Row Access Strobe) Latency
Chips that have been used and returned to the factory, marked again, and resold. The surface of the chips may be dull or scratched.
An outdated type of DRAM with 184 pins.
An outdated type of DRAM with 72 or 30 pins
SIMM (single inline memory module)
A DIMM in which the memory controller can only access one DIMM at a time
Single-sided DIMMs providing only one 64-bit bank
A DIMM with memory chips installed on one side of the module
a smaller version of a DIMM used on laptops
SO-DIMM (small outline DIMM)
The first DIMM to run synchronized with the system clock. It has two notches, and uses 168 pins
synchronous DRAM (SDRAM)
Accessing three DIMMs at the same time.
An IDE cable that has 40 pins but uses 80 wires, 40 of which are ground wires designed to reduce crosstalk on the cable
80-conductor IDE cable
A nonprofit organization dedicated to creating trade and communications standards
ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
An interface standard, part of the IDE/ATA standards, that allows tape drives, CD-ROM drives, and other drives to be treated like an IDE hard drive by the system.
A feature of system BIOS and hard drives that automatically identifies and configures a new drive in CMOS setup
A single hard drive that works independently of other hard drives
A method of data transfer between hard drive and memory that allows multiple data transfers on a single software interrupt
One or more sectors that constitute the smallest unit of space on a disk for storing data (also referred to as a file allocation unit).
A transfer mode used by devices, including the hard drive, to transfer data to memory without involving the CPU
DMA (direct memory access) transfer mode
A standard for managing the interface between secondary storage devices and a computer system. A system can support up to six serial ATA and parallel ATA IDE devices or up to four parallel ATA IDE devices such as hard drives, CD-ROM drives, and DVD drives.
EIDE (Enhanced IDE)
An extended partition can be divided into one or more logical drives. Each logical drive is assigned a drive letter (such as drive G:) and is formatted using its own file system
standard that specifies full SATA cabling for external disks
external SATA (eSATA)
The 12-bit wide, one-column file allocation table for a floppy disk, containing information about how each cluster or file allocation unit on the disk is currently used
Another term for a cluster
file allocation unit
A computer's ability to respond to a fault or catastrophe, such as a hardware failure or power outage, so that data is not lost
A table on a hard drive or floppy disk that tracks how space on a disk is used to store files
file allocation table (FAT)
A cluster in the file allocation table (FAT).
file allocation unit
The overall structure an OS uses to name, store, and organize files on a drive. In a file system, a cluster is the smallest unit of space on a disk for storing a file and is made up of one or more sectors.
The firmware that controls access to a hard drive contained on a circuit board mounted on or inside the hard drive housing. Older hard drives used firmware on a controller card that connected to the drive by way of two cables, one for data and one for control
hard drive controller
The top or bottom surface of one platter on a hard drive. Each platter has two
Formatting performed by means of the DOS or Windows Format program (for example, FORMAT C:/S creates the boot record, FAT, and root directory on drive C and makes the drive bootable). Also called OS formatting
The circuit board that controls a SCSI bus supporting as many as seven or fifteen separate devices. controls communication between the SCSI bus and the PC
A hard drive whose disk controller is integrated into the drive, eliminating the need for a controller cable and thus increasing speed, as well as reducing price.
IDE (Integrated Device Electronics)
A drive that uses both solid state and magnetic technologies
hybrid hard drive
A number assigned to a logical device (such as a tray in a CD changer) that is part of a physical SCSI device, which is assigned a SCSI ID
Logical Unit Number (LUN)
A process (usually performed at the factory) that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors and tests for bad spots on the disk surface
An older IDE cabling method that uses a 40-pin flat data cable or an 80-conductor cable and a 40-pin IDE connector. See also serial ATA
A transfer mode that uses the CPU to transfer data from the hard drive to memory. slower than DMA mode
PIO (Programmed Input/Output) transfer mode
A sealed, magnetic coil device that moves across the surface of a disk either reading data from or writing data to the disk
Windows Vista technology that supports a hybrid drive
A fast interface between a host adapter and the CPU that can daisy chain as many as 7 or 15 devices on a single bus
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
A number from 0 to 15 assigned to each SCSI device attached to the daisy chain
commonly called the host adapter. The host adapter is inserted into an expansion slot on the motherboard and is responsible for managing all devices on the SCSI bus. A host adapter can support both internal and external SCSI devices, using one connector on the card for a ribbon cable or round cable to connect to internal devices, and an external port that supports external devices.
SCSI host adapter card
An ATAPI cabling method that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80-conductor cable. See also parallel ATA
serial ATA (SATA)
An IDE cable that is narrower and has fewer pins than the parallel IDE 80-conductor cable.
serial ATA cable
A self-monitoring technology whereby the BIOS monitors the health of the hard drive and warns of an impending failure.
S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology)
The resistor added at the end of a SCSI chain to dampen the voltage at the end of the chain.
The primary partition. The volume is assigned a drive letter (such as drive C: or drive D:) and is formatted using a file system.
An input device that inputs biological data about a person; the data can identify a person's fingerprints, handprints, face, voice, eye, and handwriting.
A condition in which chips loosen because of thermal changes
The number assigned a serial port that determines the system resources used by the port.
COM1 (communications port 1)
An older technology used by monitors in which the filaments at the back of a cathode tube shoot a beam of electrons to the scrren at the front of the tube.
CRT (cathode-Ray Tube)
A button on a CRT monitor that can be pressed to eliminate accumulated or tray magnetic fields around the monitor which can cause CRT monitor to flicker or have wavy lines
A DVI (Digital Visual Interface) viseo port that works only with digital monitors
A DVI video port that supports both anolog and digital monitors
A Windows command to display info about hardware and diagnose problems with DirectX
A bedirectional parallel port mode that uses a DMA channel to speed up data flow.
ECP (Extended Capabilities Port)
"Green" systems that satisfy the EPA requirements to decrease the overall consumption of electricity
A parallel port that allows data to flow in both directions and is faster than original ports on PCs that allow communication only in one direction.
EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port)
A device used to house and protect a hard drive outside the computer case and connect it to on eSATA, USB, or other type of port on the computer. Also called a toaster
hard drive dock
A digital audio and viseo interface dtandard currently used on televisions and other home theater equipment and expencted to ultimately replace DVI.
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedea Interface)
A network device or box that provides a central location to connect cables and sidtributes incoming data packets to all other devices connected to it,
A standard for parallel ports and cables developed bu the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers an dsupported bu hardware manufacturers.
Standards for an expansion bus that can also be configured to work as a local bus. It is expected to replace tha SCSI bus, providing an easy method to install and configure fast I/O devices. Also called FireWire and i.Link
A standard, developed by the 1394 Trade Assiciation, that is designed for peer-to-peer data transmission and allows imaging devices to send images and photos directly to printers without involving a computer
A wireless transceiver that uses infrared technology to support some wireless devices such as keyboards, mice, and printers.
A line on a bus that is assigned to a device and is used to signal the CPU for servicing. These lines are assigned a reference number
IRQ (Interrupt ReQuest) Line
A method used by the IEEE 1394 and other technologies to transfer data continuously without breaks.
isonchronous data transfer
A switch allows you to use one keyboard, mouse, and monitor for multiple computers.
KVM (Keyboard, Video, and Mouse) Switch
A monitor that uses LCD technology. Prodices an image using a liquid crystal material made of large, easily polarized meloecules. Flatter than CRT and take up less space.
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Monitor
Assignments of system resources that are made to a parallel port and that are used to manage a print job.
LPT (Line Printer Terminal)
The actual (and fixed) number of pixels built into a LCD monitor.
A type of display in which the electronic beam of a CRT monitor draws every line on the screen with each pass