Self conscious: injury to or enhancement of our sense of self – humans are capable of a second, higher-order set of feelings, including guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride.
Self-Conscious appears at the end of the second year 18 to 24 months.
Stranger anxiety: most frequent expression of fear is to unfamiliar adults.
varies with infant’s temperament, past experience with strangers, and the current situation.
Best Method to Regulate Emotions
Emotional self-regulation: the strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals.
caregivers provide lessons in socially approved ways of expressing feelings.
Thomas and Chess Research on Temperaments
Activity level, Rhythmicity, Distractibility, Approach/Withdrawal, Adaptability, Attention Span/Persistence, Intensity of reaction, threshold of responsiveness, Mood
Easy (40%), Difficult (10%), Slow to Warm (15%)
Attachment & Different Types
Attachment: the strong affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress.
Secure, Avoidant, Resistant, Disoriented
Children Appetite During Early Childhood
Preschoolers appetites decline because growth has slowed, require high-quality diet
imitate food choices of adults and peer
exposure to foods increases acceptance
What percentage of children under 5 dies because of disease
Of the 10 million annual deaths of children under age 5, 70% are due to infectious diseases.
Child's First Attempt in Printing
writing their name, generally using a single letter.
at first preschoolers do not distinguish writing from drawing
In the conservation-of-liquid experiment, what is a limitation of preoperational thought
centration: focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
child centers on the height of the water, failing to realize the changes in width
children are distracted by the perceptual appearance of objects
children treat the initial and final states of the water as unrelated events
irreversibility: an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point. Part of logical operation.
What type of play did Vygotsky state was an ideal for cognitive development
make believe play
create imaginary ideas, learn internal ideas and social rules
make believe play is a unique, broadly influential zone of proximal development in which children try out a wide variety of challenging activities and acquire new competencies.
planning – thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal.
children learn from cultural tools and when they collaborate
What Are Scripts
Scripts: general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation
help children organize and interpret every day experiences. Can predict later. Help planning.
Computer Use in Early Childhood
written products tend to be longer and of higher quality due to letters/words without handwriting
improve problem solving and metacognition because children must plan and reflect on their thinking to get their programs to work.
Preschoolers develop self-awareness and what else
self-concept: the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is.
What does research state about children who are sociable/assertive
Different Styles of Play
nonsocial activity: unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
parallel play: child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
associative play: children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comments
cooperative play: children orient toward a common goal.
Research on Friendships
Research on Punishment
Research on Television Violence
Research on Gender Typing
gender typing: refers to any association of objects, activities, roles or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes.
genetic influence – males genetically primed for dominance and females for intimacy. Males masculine
environmental influence – expectations by parents, teachers, peers.
Idnetify: An Androgynous Gender Identity
Scoring high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics.
Different Parenting Styles
Authoritative: high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting.
Authoritarian: low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting.
Permissive: warm and accepting but uninvolved. They are overindulging or inattentive and, thus, engage in little control. They allow children to make many of their own decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so.
Uninvolved: combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy.
most successful approach – involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting.