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Piaget Cognitive stages
- Assimilation & Accommodation
- Sensorimotor (& 6 Substages)
Accommodation and Assimilation
- Accommodation: create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely.
- Assimilation: use current schemes to interpret the
- external world.
- Sensory register: sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly.
- Working or short-term memory: actively apply mental strategies as we “work” on a limited amount of information.
- Long-term memory: our permanent knowledge base.
- Infantile amnesia: most of us cannot retrieve events that happened to us before age 3.
- children remember deliberately rather than implicitly, without conscious awareness.
- children remember largely with nonverbal techniques
- biology and social experience contribute to the decline of infantile amnesia.
Quality of Child Care
- major impact on mental development
- poor quality child care score lower measures of cognitive and social skills.
- good child care can reduce the negative impact of a stressed, poverty life.
- child care affected by a macrosystem of individualistic values and weak government regulation and funding
- behaviorist perspective: operant conditioning, imitation, environmental influences.
- nativist perspective: language acquisition device (LAD), contains universal grammar, or rules. It enables children to understand and speak as soon as they know words…any language.
- interactionist perspective: interactions between inner capacities and environmental influences. (information-processing perspective & social interaction)
Infant’s Order of Speech and First Spoken Words
- cooing and babbling: vowels and consonant-vowel combinations. “oo” – “bababa”
- joint attention: child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver.
- End of 1st year: word-gesture combinations
- underextension: when toddlers first learn words, they apply them too narrowly
- overextension: applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events.
Comprehension and Production
- production due to overextension (the words children use)
- comprehension (the words they understand)
- comprehension develops ahead of production
- comprehension increases over the second year, and frees working memory space.
- Basic Trust vs Mistrust (birth – 1yr) warm, care means trust or confidence. "HOPE"
- Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (1-3yrs) "WILL"
- Initiative vs Guilt (3-6yrs) ambition and responsibility, may produce guilt. "PURPOSE"
- Industry vs Inferiority (6-11yrs) "COMPETENCE"
- Identity vs Role Confusion (Adolescence) "FIDELITY"
Basic Emotions: How/When Do They Develop
- Basic emotions: happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust – are universal in humans and other primates and have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival.
- Stages - Birth: Stress/Distress, 2-4mths: happiness/social smile, 4-6mths: fear/anger/sadness/joy, 18-24mths: self-conscious/guilt/pride
Self-Conscious Emotions: How/When Do They Develop
- Self conscious: injury to or enhancement of our sense of self – humans are capable of a second, higher-order set of feelings, including guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride.
- Self-Conscious appears at the end of the second year 18 to 24 months.
- Stranger anxiety: most frequent expression of fear is to unfamiliar adults.
- varies with infant’s temperament, past experience with strangers, and the current situation.
Best Method to Regulate Emotions
- Emotional self-regulation: the strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals.
- caregivers provide lessons in socially approved ways of expressing feelings.
Thomas and Chess Research on Temperaments
- Activity level, Rhythmicity, Distractibility, Approach/Withdrawal, Adaptability, Attention Span/Persistence, Intensity of reaction, threshold of responsiveness, Mood
- Easy (40%), Difficult (10%), Slow to Warm (15%)
Attachment & Different Types
- Attachment: the strong affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress.
- Secure, Avoidant, Resistant, Disoriented
Children Appetite During Early Childhood
- Preschoolers appetites decline because growth has slowed, require high-quality diet
- imitate food choices of adults and peer
- exposure to foods increases acceptance
What percentage of children under 5 dies because of disease
Of the 10 million annual deaths of children under age 5, 70% are due to infectious diseases.
Child's First Attempt in Printing
- writing their name, generally using a single letter.
- at first preschoolers do not distinguish writing from drawing
In the conservation-of-liquid experiment, what is a limitation of preoperational thought
- centration: focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
- child centers on the height of the water, failing to realize the changes in width
- children are distracted by the perceptual appearance of objects
- children treat the initial and final states of the water as unrelated events
- irreversibility: an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point. Part of logical operation.
What type of play did Vygotsky state was an ideal for cognitive development
- make believe play
- create imaginary ideas, learn internal ideas and social rules
- make believe play is a unique, broadly influential zone of proximal development in which children try out a wide variety of challenging activities and acquire new competencies.
- planning – thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal.
- children learn from cultural tools and when they collaborate
What Are Scripts
- Scripts: general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation
- help children organize and interpret every day experiences. Can predict later. Help planning.
Computer Use in Early Childhood
- written products tend to be longer and of higher quality due to letters/words without handwriting
- improve problem solving and metacognition because children must plan and reflect on their thinking to get their programs to work.
Preschoolers develop self-awareness and what else
self-concept: the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is.
What does research state about children who are sociable/assertive
Different Styles of Play
- nonsocial activity: unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
- parallel play: child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
- associative play: children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comments
- cooperative play: children orient toward a common goal.
Research on Television Violence
Research on Gender Typing
- gender typing: refers to any association of objects, activities, roles or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes.
- genetic influence – males genetically primed for dominance and females for intimacy. Males masculine
- environmental influence – expectations by parents, teachers, peers.
Idnetify: An Androgynous Gender Identity
Scoring high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics.
Different Parenting Styles
- Authoritative: high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting.
- Authoritarian: low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting.
- Permissive: warm and accepting but uninvolved. They are overindulging or inattentive and, thus, engage in little control. They allow children to make many of their own decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so.
- Uninvolved: combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy.
- most successful approach – involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting.
- establish enjoyable, parent-child relationship. Expect mature behavior.
- promotes upbeat mood, self control, task persistence, high self esteem.
stiffness and aches in the legs – body is growing – muscles adapt to an enlarging skeleton
Child Obesity and Treatment
- obesity: a greater-than-20% increase over healthy weight, based on body mass index
- rates are increasing in US & developing countries.
- relationship to low SES, including minorities.
- parental feeding, sleep habits, physically inactivity,
- treatment -- most effective is family based, and early intervention
Criticisms Regarding Adult Organized Sports
- overemphasize competition and adult control
- react angrily to defeat can prompt intense anxiety
Research on Physical Education
- supports health, sense of self-worth, and cognitive/social skills necessary for interacting with others.
- has been cut back even though it contributes to all domains of development
- instead of competitive sports, should have enjoyable games, individual exercise.
- fit children tend to become active adults
Different Types of Memory and Strategies
- Rehearsal: repeating the information to herself
- Organization: grouping related items together
- Elaboration: creating shared meaning between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category.
Origin of ADHD
- ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity affecting academics/social.
- highly heritable, unhappy and stress in families
- environmental factors – exposure to prenatal teratogens
Strong Predictor for Academic Success in Teens
Reading Experts Believe...
- encompasses all aspects of information-processing systems
- children learn best by mixing whole-language approach(parallel natural language learning) and phonics approach (symbols to sounds)
- providing instruction aimed at increasing knowledge and use of reading strategies enhances reading performance from 3rd grade on.
Why are Chinese children better in math than US children
- receive a variety of supports for acquiring mathematical knowledge
- use of the metric system help grasp place value
- consistent structure of number words
- more time exploring math concepts and less to drill and repetition
- gifted: students displaying exceptional intellectual strengths.
- talent must be nurtured, parents can help (demanding but not overambitious)
- have more emotional and social difficulties than others
- gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences has inspired several model programs of enrichment.