beetles

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Author:
Ikki
ID:
142893
Filename:
beetles
Updated:
2012-03-21 04:35:23
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Entomology CSUN
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beetles
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  1. PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
    CLASS INSECTA
    ORDER COLEOPTERA
    COMMON NAME: beetles
  2. Family recognition (California, local): Carabidae (ground beetles, tiger beetles)
    • DISTRIBUTION: 680 California species. Terrestrial; most often encountered under objects on the ground or out running around.
    • MORPHOLOGY: up to 34 mm long. Adults are relatively hairless, usually dark bodied (tiger beetles often with white or yellowish markings on a metallic background) with prognathous head with mandibulate mouthparts. Most somewhat flattened
    • DIET: Both larvae and adults are active predators on smaller invertebrates such as caterpillers, grasshoppers, and snails. Tiger beetle larvae live in and capture prey from burrows. Some carabids consume plant material.
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous.Many produce noxious fluids from glands at end of abdomen.
  3. Family recognition (California, local): Staphylinidae (rove beetles)
    • DISTRIBUTION: 1230 California species. Terrestrial; found under rocks, etc., sometimes crawling on ground, and at lights at night where they may show up in tremendous numbers.
    • MORPHOLOGY: Most 1-10 mm long, but a few up to 33 mm. Adults are typically black or brown with an elongate body. Almost always with short elytra, exposing much of abdomen. Head porognathous.
    • DIET: Primarily predators, both as larvae and adults, on other small invertebrates.
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous.This is the largest family of beetles in California. Many curl their abdomen over their backs when bothered as if to sting (but can't sting).
  4. Family recognition (California, local): Scarabaeidae (June beetles, dung beetles, scarabs)
    • DISTRIBUTION: 290 California species. Terrestrial; adults found on vegetation and are common visitors to lights at night. Most larvae live in the soil or other decomposing plant matter.
    • MORPHOLOGY: Up to 30 mm long. Usually stout bodied, sometimes quite hairy, and with lamellate antennae, the terminal segments forming a club. Head weakly hypognathous. Larvae, known as white grubs, are typically c-shaped.Most commonly encountered at lights at night and around decomposing organic matter. Larvae feed on roots and other plant parts and on decaying organic matter.
    • DIET: Larvae are predaceous and capture and eat their prey under the soil surface, sometimes using funnel-shaped pit in loose soil.
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous. Eggs laid in soil. leaf litter, compost, dung, etc.
  5. Family recognition (California, local): Elateridae (click beetles)
    • DISTRIBUTION: 300 California species. Terrestrial; adults often on vegetation, under boards or stones, or under bark of rotting logs. Many come to lights at night. Larvae live in soil or rotting wood.
    • MORPHOLOGY: Up to 45 mm long, but most considerably smaller. Easily recognized by their rather elongate, flattened body, usually with backward pointing projections on the prothorax. Also have a distinctive “clicking” mechanism on underside of body between pro- and mesothorax. Most are brown or black and have slightly hypognathous head. Larvae, known as wireworms, resemble slender mealworms.Larvae live in wood or in the soil where they are predators or feed on plant material, especially roots.
    • DIET: Consume a wide variety of both living and dead plant material including rotting fruit and sap from wounds. Many also eat fungi and some are predaceous.
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous.
  6. Family recognition (California, local): Coccinellidae (lady beetles)
    • DISTRIBUTION: 180 California species. Terrestrial; both larvae and adults found on vegetation.
    • MORPHOLOGY: 2-9 mm long. Round to ovate in outllne; flat on the bottom and rounded dorsally. Usually rather brightly colored with black markings on a red, orange, or white background.
    • DIET: Although some feed on living plant tissues, others on molds, most are predaceous as both larvae and adults.
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous.Because prey are often plant pests such as aphids, mealybugs, scale insects, and mites, lady beetles are considered beneficial insects. Many species have been introduced into California as potential biological control agents.
  7. Family recognition (California, local): Tenebrionidae (darkling beetles)
    • DISTRIBUTION: 445 California species. Terrestrial; found in leaf litter, loose soil, and actively walking on ground during the day or at night.
    • MORPHOLOGY: Up to 30 mm or more long. Generally dark brown to black beetles in a variety of shapes, but usually with forward-directed head and bead-like antennae. Some are flightless with fused elytra. Most have a 5-5-4 tarsal formula.
    • DIET: Adults and larvae feed on mosses, fungi, detritus, and other dead plant matter.
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous.Many adapted for life in dry environments and are associated with sand dune habitats. Some local species stand on their head when disturbed and may emit a foul-smelling, dark brown liquid. Larvae of a few species (mealworms) sold in pet shops as food for carnivorous pets and in bait shops.
  8. Family recognition (California, local): Meloidae (blister beetles)
    • DISTRIBUTION: 130 California species. Terrestrial; adults encountered on flowers or crawling on the ground. Larvae associated with and feed upon egg masses of grasshoppers buried in the ground or the nests of solitary, ground-nesting bees.
    • MORPHOLOGY: 3-33 mm long. Adults are variously shaped, some with bright markings of yellow or red on black background or metallic blues and greens. Most with a downward-directed (hypognathous) ant-like head and a conspicuous “neck.” Chewing mouthparts. The elytra are often leathery and do not meet cleanly down the middle of the back.
    • DIET: Some adults do not feed; those that do feed on plants, particularly flowers.
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous. Some species exhibit diverse courtship behavior involving chemical, tactile, and visual cues. Larvae go through dramatic changes in morphology, from active triungulin to C-shaped feeding grub to immobile, non-feeding stage before pupation.Body fluids, often emitted when disturbed, can cause blisters on human skin.
  9. Family recognition (California, local): Cerambycidae (long-horned beetles)
    Family recognition (California, local): Cerambycidae (long-horned beetles)
  10. Family recognition (California, local): Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles)
    • DISTRIBUTION: 480 California species. Terrestrial; both larvae and adults most frequently encountered on living vegetation. A few are aquatic, and feed on aquatic plants.
    • MORPHOLOGY: 1-11 mm long. Most are rather small, with oval to flattened bodies with a wide variety of colors. The head is usually hypognathous, but is sometimes prognathous. The tarsi appear 4-4-4 but are actually 5-5-5 with the fourth segment small and tucked between the lobes of the heart-shaped third segment.
    • DIET: Larvae and adults feed on living plants. They attack bark, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds and roots. Most species are specialists, feeding only on a single species of plant or a group of closely related species. Some larvae are leaf miners, feeding between the upper and lower surfaces of living leaves.
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous.Some leaf beetles have been used as bio-control agents of noxious weeds.
  11. Family recognition (California, local): Curculionidae (weevils, bark beetles)
    • DISTRIBUTION: 570 California species. Terrestrial; both larvae and adults most frequently encountered on living vegetation. A few are aquatic, and feed on aquatic plants.
    • MORPHOLOGY: 1-25 mm long. Most are rather small, but some are moderate to large, with elongate to stout bodies and typically with elongated “snout” bearing the terminal mouthparts and a pair of “elbowed” antennae.
    • DIET: Larvae, and some adults, feed on living plant material, including seeds. Bark beetles feed below the bark on living, usually stressed, trees..
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous.Some weevils are pests of stored grains (e.g., rice weevils) or agricultural crops (e. g., Boll Weevil). Many bark beetles are serious forest pests.
  12. PHYLUM ARTHROPODA,
    CLASS INSECTA
    ORDER RAPHIDIOPTERA
    ETYMOLOGY: Greek raphio (needle) and pteron (wing).
    • COMMON NAME: snakefliesDISTRIBUTION: 220 described species. Only in northern hemisphere. Adults terrestrial, usually encountered flying or on vegetation. Larvae usually found under bark of dead, rotting trees.
    • MORPHOLOGY: xx-xx mm. Characteristically long prothorax that give this appearance of a long neck. Prognathous heat with relatively large mandibles and long, thin antennae. Four membranous wings held roof-like over the body when at rest. Abdomen relatively soft, compared to more sclerotized head and thorax. Females with long ovipositor.
    • DIET: Predaceous both as adults and larvae.
    • REPRODUCTION: Primarily dioecious, sexual, oviparous. Holometablous development. Larvae take one to several years to develop.
  13. PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
    CLASS INSECTA
    ORDER MEGALOPTERA
    ETYMOLOGY: Greek megalo (large) and pteron (wing).
    • COMMON NAME: alderflies and dobsonflies
    • DISTRIBUTION: 300 described species. Adults terrestrial in riparian areas, but often come to lights at night. Larvae strictly aquatic in streams.
    • MORPHOLOGY: Moderate to very large, soft-bodied (especially the abdomen) insects (10-75 mm in body length, up to several inches long if include wings). Prognathous head with well developed, mandibulate mouthparts and long antennae. Four, membranous wings held roof-like over the body when at rest. Wings have complex venation with lots of crossveins and most with dark, smoky wings (alderflies) or mostly transparent with dark mottling (dobsonflies). Cerci absent. Larvae with large mandibles and fleshy lateral appendages on the sides of the abdomen.
    • DIET: Primarily predaceous, but some are scavengers. Adults do not eat.
    • REPRODUCTION: Primarily dioecious, sexual, oviparous. Holometablous development. Larvae take one to several years to develop. Pupation out of water in damp, protected area.
  14. Family recognition (California, local): Corydalidae (dobsonflies and fishflies)
    • DISTRIBUTION: about 10 California species; adults usually encountered in near streams, but often come to lights at night, sometimes far from water. Larvae are aquatic in flowing waters.
    • MORPHOLOGY: Large, soft body 2-5 cm long; wingspan up to 16 cm. Head prognathous with prominent mandibles and long bead-like antennae. Males of some species have greatly enlarged, scythe-like mandibles. Four membranous, mottled wings that extend well past the end of the abdomen and are held roof-like over body when at rest. Larvae, known as hellgrammites, with large mandibles and fleshy lateral appendages on the sides of the abdomen
    • DIET: Larvae predaceous on stream invertebrates. Adults typically do not feed.
    • REPRODUCTION: Eggs deposited in clusters on objects such as logs over streams. Pupation occurs out of the water in moist soil or under stones.
  15. PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
    CLASS INSECTA
    ORDER NEUROPTERA
    ETYMOLOGY: Greek neuron (nerve) and pteron (wing).
    • COMMON NAME: lacewings, owlflies, and antlions
    • DISTRIBUTION: 6,500 described species. Mostly terrestrial, but few freshwater.
    • MORPHOLOGY: < 1 mm to over 18 cm long. Relatively soft body with four, membranous wings held roof-like over the body when at rest. Wings have complex venation with lots of crossveins. Mostly prognathous head with large, lateral compound eyes and chewing mouthparts. Antennae long and thin, except in antlions where relatively short. Most with a relatively long prothorax. Cerci absent. Larvae with elongate mandibles and maxillae that are combined to form piercing-sucking mouthparts.
    • DIET: Primarily predaceous, but a few feed on plant material. One group feeds on freshwater sponges.
    • REPRODUCTION: Primarily dioecious, sexual, oviparous. Holometablous development. Pupation often in a silken shelter.
  16. PHYLUM ARTHROPODA
    CLASS INSECTA
    ORDER NEUROPTERA
    Family recognition (California, local): Chrysopidae (green lacewings)
    • DISTRIBUTION: about xxx California species; terrestrial and usually found on vegetation. Adults of some often come to lights at night.
    • MORPHOLOGY: body up to about 10 mm long. Head mostly proognathous with chewing mouthparts. Possess four membranous wings. Body usually green with shiny eyes.
    • DIET: Adults feed on honeydew, pollen, or are predaceous. Larvae are predaceous, particularly on small Hemiptera such as aphids and other related plant pests.
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous. Eggs often laid on end of long, thin stalk.
  17. Family recognition (California, local): Myrmeliontidae (antlions)
    • DISTRIBUTION: around 50 California species; terrestrial. Larvae live in sandy soil, adults often come to lights at night.
    • MORPHOLOGY: xx-xx mm long. Adults resemble dragonflies or dobsonflies. Antennae fairly short, about combined length of head and thorax. Chewing mouthparts. Four membranous wings with many crossveins; held roof-like over the body when at rest.
    • DIET: Larvae are predaceous and capture and eat their prey under the soil surface, sometimes using funnel-shaped pit in loose soil.
    • REPRODUCTION: Sexual, dioecious, oviparous.

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