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What does not effect the number of platelets being produced?
What goes to an injured site first?
What is the range of platelets in the body when you have a pt with spontaneous bleeding form everywhere?
40,000 and lower
What medication can cause platelets to not stick together?
What is the liquid form of blood?
What is referd to the "clear river"?
What is plasma comprised of:
What is the protien in plasma?
Where is albumin formed?
How is globulin divided up?
- Gamma, most common, are immunoglobulins or antibodies
What does not usually pass through capillaries?
Plasma protein; Albumin
What maintains osmotic pressure to retain in the vascular system?
If Albumin is high where can you see signs of this?
- Lower leg Edema
What % of the population has type A blood?
What % of the population has type B blood?
What % of the population has type AB blood?
What % of the population has type O blood?
How is blood determined?
What does each blood group have on the red cell membrane?
Group A has what antigen
Group B has what antigen?
Group AB has what antigen?
has both A & B antigen
Group O has what antigen?
What type of blood is the universal recipient?
What blood type is the universal donor?
What does each person have that reacts to these antibodies?
the plasma has the antibodies
Where is the Rh factor located?
Rh antibodies maybe located on the surface of the RBC
What does Rh postive mean?
antibodies are persent
What does Rh negative mean?
antibodies are not present
What are the characteristics of blood?
What is the consistency of blood?
- 45% blood cells
- 55% blood plasma
What is the pH of blood?
What is the total volume of blood in the body?
What is hemostasis?
A body process that arrest the flow of the blood and prevents hemorrhage.
How many mechinisimsare needed to form a clot?
13 are needed and has to be in the correct amount.
What steps are involved in an injury?
- grouping platelets
- thromboplastin released
- converts prothrombin to thrombin
- links with fibrin
- trap RBCs and Platelets
- forms clot
A low ____ can make a body bleed longer.
What is the function of the lymphatic system?
- Maintenance of the fluid balance
- production of lymphocytes
- absorption and transportation of lipids from the inestine to the bloodstream
what is the lymphatic system comprised of?
- Lymph vessels
- Lymphatic tissues
What is lymph and lymph vessels?
Lymph is a specialized fluid formed in the tissues spaces transported by way of the lymphatic vessels and reenters the circulatory system
What do lymph nodes do?
acts as filter, keeping particulate matter such as bacteria from entering the bloodstream.
Where are lymph nodes located?
next to major blood vessels. can't be felt because they are deep in the skin
What helps people from becoming septic
What are the parts of lymphatic tissue?
- Lymph nodes
What do tonsils do?
produce lymphocytes and antibodies; trap bacteria
What does the spleen do?
Reservoir for blood; forms lymphocytes, monocytes, and plasma; destroys worn-out RBCs; removes bacterica by phagocytosis
What has an extra pint of blood and platelets?
What is the thymus?
immune system before and a few months after birth; atrophies at puberty.
Can you live without your slpeen?
What is a CBC?
Complete Blood Count; RBC, H+H, WBC, Plateletes
What is red cell indices?
- MCHC; increased production of RBC immature cells so they do not carry O2
What does a periphearl smear do?
helps tell which kind of anemia the pt has
What does a schilling test DX?
- DX pernishishes anemia.
- 2 shots IM B12 - 24 hr urine- lab test for vit B12- if greater than 40% B12 not absorb.
- Meaning no intressic factor in the stomach
waht is megaloblastic anemia profile?
Blood drawl for pernishis anemia
What is Lymphangiography test?
A scan with injected dye goes to lymph system shows abnormalities of lymph- when pt back increase fluids
What is a bone marrow aspiration or biopsy done for?
DX anemia lukemia neutropenea thromocytopena- bedside test - timed pulls from posterior iliac crest/sternum. takes sliver on slide
What is anemia?
disorder characterized by RBC and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels below normal range
What does anemia cause to the body?
causes delivery of insufficient amounts of O2 to cells and tissues.
With a DX of anemia what area are you most concered about?
the brain getting O2
What is the etiology of anemia?
- Types of anemia
- Blood loss
- impaired production of RBCs
- increased destruction of RBCs
- Nutitional deficiencies
What is the clinical assessment of anemia?
- Cardiac dilation
- Level of constousnous
- tachycardia- not enough O2 flowing through
- orthosatic hypotention-wait 1 min to move b/w each lying sitting standing
Do you have enough blood circulating with a DX of anemia?
If a pt has a hbg lower than 8 do you get them up?
no pt on bedrest
What DX depends on the cause
correction of the disese process may correct or lessen the condition
tx is specific
- anemia TX
- keep warm
- ADL ax1
- perfusion of kidney- amt Out
- gyaic stools
What is hypovolemic anemia?
- Abnormally low circulating blood volume due to blood loss
- 500ml loss can cause severe complications
- severity and signs and symptoms depend on how rapid the blood loss is
What does the S/S point to:
pale; cool, moist skin
hbg less than 10g/100ml
hct less than 40%
When a pt is in hypovolemic state what do you do to their legs?
- You elevate lower legs to get blood back to heart
What are the NI of hypovolemic anemia?
- Control bleeding
- treat shock-O2 elevate lower legs, keep warm
- Replace fluid- blood transfusion, plasma,dextran, Lactated ringers
- monitor vitals
what is dextran?
Medication for expanding plasma make pt plasma thincker
What kind of solution is Lactated Ringers?