ANAT.Exam.3

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xiongav
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142916
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ANAT.Exam.3
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2012-04-02 23:30:43
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Arteries
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Arteries
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  1. What are the 3 types of blood vessels?

    Which is the smallest blood vessel?
    1) Arteries

    2) Capillaries - SMALLEST

    3) Veins
  2. What is Anastomosis?

    Do veins or arteries form the most anastomoses?
    Where two or more arteries (or veins) converge to supply the same body region.

    Veins for the most anastomoses.
  3. Major arteries: Aorta.

    Where is the Ascending Aorta located?

    What are the 3 branches off the Arch of the Aorta? (BLL)

    Where is the Arch of the Aorta located?
    Ascending Aorta located within the pericardium and middle mediastinum.

    3 branches: Brachiocephalic trunk, Left Common Carotid, Left Subclavian Artery.

    Arch of Aorta located: above the pericardium in the superior mediastinum.
  4. What is the 1st branch of the arch and what does it branch into? (2)
    • 1st branch: Brachio-cephalic (brachi = arm + cephalo = head) Trunk
    • Branches into:
    • 1) Right Subclavian Artery ("under the clavicle").
    • 2) Right Common Carotid Artery which supplies the head.
  5. What does the Arch continue as?

    Where is this located?

    What does it become?
    Continues as the descending or the thoracic aorta.

    The descending aorta is in the posterior mediastinum.

    The descending aorta becomes the abdominal aorta.
  6. What does the abdominal aorta bifurcate into? (2)

    After the bifurcation, what do they branch into? (2)
    • Bifucates into:
    • 1) Right common iliac arteries
    • 2) Left common iliac arteries

    • Common iliac arteries branch into:
    • 1) internal iliac arteries
    • 2) external iliac arteries
  7. Arteries; what are the major arteries?

    Aorta, supplies blood to what 5 areas of the body?

    (hint: head..and down)
    • -Aorta
    • -Supply to:
    • 1) head
    • 2) Upper/lower extremities
    • 3) Thorax
    • 4) Abdomen
    • 5) Pelvis
    • 6) Gluteals
  8. Explain the layers of Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries

    innermost to outermost which surround the LUMEN.
    • Arteries: (innermost-->outermost)
    • -Lumen
    • 1) Tunica Intima (endothelium, subendothelial layer, *internal elastic lamina)
    • 2) Tunica Media (symp. innervation)
    • 3) Tunica Adventita (outermost connective tissue)

    Veins: Similar to artery

    Capillary: Only simple squamous, Endothelial cells.
  9. What are the 3 types of Arteries and explain their significant characteristics.

    Where are elastic arteries located?

    How is arteriole BP regulated?

    What are ARTERIES also known as?
    1) Elastic arteries: high pressure tubes, expand to receive blood, when ventricles relax, they recoil and pump more.

    Located: Pulmonary trunk and Aorta.

    2) Muscular arteries: *most arteries, mid-sized, mostly tunica media w/ thick smooth muscle.

    • 3) Arterioles: tiny vessels, mostly smooth muscle;
    • -BP regulated by the DIAMETER of the vessel.

    AKA: conducting arteries
  10. Veins versus arteries

    Compare veins to arteries

    WHMLLM
    (white house men love LARGE money)

    Which has thick media? Which has thick externa?
    Artery: High pressure; THICK media

    Vein: Low pressure; THICK (outer layer) externa, thin media

    • 1) Walls are thinner
    • 2) Have larger lumen
    • 3) Medium sized veins have valves to prevent backflow of blood an aide circulation.
    • 4) Less muscle
    • 5) Large veins, like the vena cava, have longitudinal smooth muscle in tunica externa.
    • 6) More connective tissue.
  11. What are the muscle cell types found in arteries and veins?

    Between skeletal and cardiac muscle, what is the difference?
    • Smooth muscle
    • -Involuntary
    • -Non-striated

    Cardiac muscle has intercalated discs, skeletal doesn't.
  12. What are the functions of the Endothelium? (5)

    Lining of..
    • 1) Heart
    • 2) Arteries
    • 3) Capillaries
    • 4) Veins
    • 5) Lymphatic System
  13. What are the 3 types of Capillaries? Describe them.
    1) Continuous capillary formed by endothelial cells: gases, (O2/CO2) water, lipids.

    2) Fenestrated capillary: "L" window, molecules & peptides.

    3) Sinusoid: "open space"; proteins & cells; liver & spleen.
  14. Blood Pressure.
    Pressure and flow decreases to make circulation through capillaries low and constant:• smaller arteriole diameter higher resistance+ total area increases = low pressure and velocity
  15. Elastic Arteries (Aorta and Pulmonary)

    What does Elasticity prevent?
    Prevents pressure from becoming too high or too low.
  16. What branches off the aortic arch?

    Name and locate them.

    (On slide)
    Right/Left common carotid arteries

    • From the Right Carotid Artery and down:
    • -Vertebral
    • -Subclavian
    • -Brachio-cephalic trunk
    • -ascending aorta

    • From the Left Carotid Artery and down:
    • -Aortic arch
    • -Axillary
    • -Descending aorta
  17. What are the Arteries to Head and what do they supply? (4)

    Which is branched?
    1) Common Carotid

    2) External carotid (branches before gets to the head)

    3) Internal carotid (anterior)

    4) Vertebral
  18. Arterial supply to head.

    What does the Common Carotid Artery split to become? (2)

    What is the Vertebral Artery a branch of?
    -Travels through?

    What does each of the 3, supply to?
    • Common Carotid Artery
    • 1) Internal Carotid Artery
    • -Supplies the anterior and middle of the brain.

    • 2) External Carotid Artery
    • -Branches FIRST & has many branches.
    • -Supplies to the FACE

    • 3) Vertebral Artery
    • -Supplies to posterior of the brain.
    • -Branch off of the Subclavian Artery.
    • -Travels through Transverse Foramina of Cervical Vertebrae.
  19. The Internal Carotid and Vertebral Arteries unite to form? (aka "Circle of Willis", p. 203 lecture guide).

    From this structure, it branches to form? (2)
    Forms Cerebral Arterial Circle "Circle of Willis"

    • From "Circle of Willis", branches to form:
    • 1) Anterior cerebral artery
    • 2) Middle cerebral artery
  20. What does the Basilar Artery form from?

    What does the Basilar split into? (1)
    • Forms from:
    • 1) Right vertebral artery
    • 2) Left vertebral artery

    Basilar artery splits into the posterior cerebral arteries.
  21. The two anterior cerebral arteries are connected by what?

    The two posterior cerebral arteries connect to the middle arteries by the?
    Anterior Communicating Artery

    Posterior Communicating Arteries.
  22. In case of blockage of the brachial artery in the elbow, how will blood continue to reach the forearm?

    What are arteries from the radial or ulnar?

    What forms to become Collateral Circulation?
    It will reach the forearm by Collateral Arteries.

    Collateral Arteries: arteries branching from the brachial artery.

    Arteries from the radial or ulnar arteries are Recurrent Arteries.

    *Collateral & Recurrent Arteries anastomose to form the Collateral Circulation.
  23. Arterial supply of the Upper Extremity

    Locatre on slide.

    What does the Subclavian Artery become?

    What does this part become?

    What does this split to become? (2)
    Subclavian Artery BECOMES Axillary (axilla = "armpit") as it passes through the first rib.

    Axillary BECOMES the Brachial Artery (brachio = "arm") as it passes Teres Major muscle.

    • Brachial Artery SPLITS to become the:
    • 1) Radial artery
    • 2) Ulnar artery
  24. Arterial Supply to the Lower Extremity.

    Abdominal aorta bifurcates to form left and right?

    This, again, bifurcates in the pelvis into (2)?
    Common Iliac Arteries

    • Pelvis:
    • 1) Internal iliac arteries
    • 2) External iliac arteries
  25. Arterial supply to the lower extremity.

    The External iliac artery passes under the Inguinal ligament?

    This, then gives off a branch called the?

    This, then pass from anterior to posterior side of thigh, called?
    Femoral.

    Deep femoral artery

    Adductor Hiatus
  26. Arterial supply to the lower extremity.

    What is the Popliteal artery?
    -Splits into what two arteries?

    What is the Genicular artery?
    • Pop: femoral artery behind the knee.
    • Splits:
    • 1) anterior tibial artery
    • 2) posterior tibial artery

    Gen: Collateral circulation around the knee (Genu = "knee").
  27. When does the Dorsalis Pedis artery form?

    Where does it terminates?
    Forms when the Anterior Tibial Artery passes into the Dorsum of the foot.

    Terminates at the Arcuate artery.
  28. Anterior Tibial Artery supplies?
    Dorsum of foot.
  29. What is the Peroneal (fibular) artery?

    This artery is supplied by? (2)

    What does this artery branch to form? (2)

    These two anastomose to form?
    A branch from the posterior Tibial artery.

    • Supplied by:
    • 1) Peroneus longus (muscle)
    • 2) Peroneus brevis (muscle)

    • Posterior tibial artery branches in the plantar surface of the foot to form:
    • 1) Medial planter artery
    • 2) Lateral planter artery

    Anastomose to form the Plantar Arch.
  30. Arterial Supply to the Thorax

    The aorta in the thorax is aka? (2)

    Where is it located?

    The thoracic aorta gives off what arteries?
    Aka, descending or thoracic aorta.

    Located in the Posterior Mediastinum.

    Thoracic aorta gives off: Posterior intercostals arteries
  31. Arterial Supply to the Thorax; card 2.

    What is on each side of the sternum?

    These are branches off of what arteries?
    Sides of the sternum: Inernal thoracic arteries.

    Subclavian arteries.
  32. Arterial Supply to the Abdomen.

    What are the 3 major branches of the abdominal aorta to organs of digestion?

    What does each go to?
    1) Celiac trunk --> liver --> stomach & spleen.

    2) Superior mesenteric artery --> small & large intestine.

    3) Inferior mesenteric artery --> second part of colon & rectum.
  33. What is the arterial supply to the kidneys?

    What is the arterial supply to reproductive organs?

    Both branch off of what, in pairs?
    Renal arteries.

    Reproductive organs: gonadal (testicular or ovarian)

    *Renal and gonadal arteries branch off of Aorta in pairs.
  34. Arterial supply to the Pelvis & Gluteal region.

    The internal iliac artery supplies organs in the pelvis, and? (5)
    • 1) Bladder
    • 2) Uterus
    • 3) Vagina
    • 4) Rectum
    • 5) Gluteal muscles
  35. In the gluteal region, the Superior and Inferior gluteal arteries run w/ the superior and inferior?

    What does the Superior gluteal supply? (3)

    What does the Inferior gluteal supply?
    Gluteal nerves.

    • Superior gluteal supplies:
    • 1) gluteus minimus
    • 2) gluteus medius
    • 3) gluteus tensor fascia lata

    Inferior gluteal supplies: gluteus maximus.

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