Political Science Exam 2

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Political Science Exam 2
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2012-03-21 11:50:22
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  1. expertise model
    argues that Congress is designed to obtain the best information possible and thereby make more informed policy decisions.
  2. pork-barrel model
    argues that the internal institutions of Congress are designed to help members secure economic benefits for their constituents.
  3. partisan model
    maintains that majority party leaders dominate the workings of Congress and secure the most legislative benefits for majority party members.
  4. elitist model
    of Congress holds that the workings of Congress are biased toward serving the interests of wealthy and privileged people in society.
  5. logrolling
    agreeing to vote in favor of one another’s bills.
  6. bicameral legislature
    Congress consists of two chambers. These are the House of Representatives and the Senate.
  7. How does a bill become a law?
    For a bill to become law, both chambers of Congress must approve it and the president must sign it. If the president vetoes a bill, Congress canoverride the veto by a vote of two-thirds of the members of each chamber.
  8. proportional representation
    seats are allocated to parties based on their proportion of the public’s vote.
  9. single-member district
    An electoral district in which a single person is elected to a given office.
  10. plurality rule
    A method for determining an election's winner in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
  11. gerrymandering
    Drawing boundaries specifically for political advantage
  12. Trustee
    using their judgment to decide what is best
  13. delegate
    using constituent preferences to make decisions
  14. incumbency advantage
    The advantage current officeholders have in an election, in particular as it relates to the high rates at which congressional legislators win re-election.
  15. 5 Factors that contribute to Incumbency Advantage?
    gerrymandering, pork, television access, campaign finance, and national party efforts
  16. Speaker of the House
    the leader of the House of Representatives and of the majority party in the House
  17. majority leader
    The head of the party holding a majority of seats and, in the Senate, the leader of the Senate. In the House, the majority leader is second to the Speaker of the House.
  18. party discipline
    The tendency for legislators that belong to the same party to vote the same way on a given bill.
  19. whip
    A member of the House or Senate who is elected by his or her party to help party leaders coordinate party members' actions, including enforcing party discipline
  20. Standing committees
    have permanent jurisdiction over their policy areas
  21. special committees
    are temporarily formed to consider a special issue
  22. joint committee
    A committee made up of members of both the House and Senate.
  23. conference committees
    have the specific task of trying to reconcile conflicting House and Senate versions of the same bill.

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