Pituitary Hormones

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Pituitary Hormones
2012-04-07 10:48:07

Dr. Phipps lecture from 3/19/12
Show Answers:

  1. Which is the correct term when pertaining to pituitary hormones? tropic or trophic
  2. GHRH ______ release of GH while somatostatin _______ release of GH
    stimulates, inhibits
  3. Dopamine ____ release of prolactin
  4. ___ directly stimulates IGF-1 release, which binds IGF1 receptors and ____ receptors in serum.
    • GH
    • IGF-BP3
  5. GHR activation activates IRS/PI3K pathway which affects _______ transporters
    Also activates MAPK which expresses genes including _____
    • glucose
    • IGF-1
  6. IGF-1 binding receptors results in many pathways being activated, including ____ which has growth effects
  7. Both adults and children with GH deficiency can be treated with ___ however children may also be treated with ____. Treatment in children should be before bone _____ close.
    • GH
    • IGF-1
    • epiphyses
  8. GH treatment in adults is indicated for GH deficiency associated with ______, _____ associated wasting, and ____ due to short bowel syndrome.
    • endocrinopathy
    • AIDS
    • malabsorption
  9. Idiopathic short stature in children is a height that is _____ SDs below normal
  10. Serostim, Genotropin, Humatrope, Nutropin, Norditropin, and Saizen are what kind of GH products?
    GH look alikes
  11. what is mecasermin and what is its primary use?
    • rhIGF-1
    • used for treatment fo children with severe primary IGF-1 deficiency (gene defect)
  12. GH in ____ side effects include edema, carpel tunnel, arthralgia.
    GH in ____ side effects include impaired glucose tolerance, scoliosis, intracranial hypertension
    IGF-1 side effects include insulin effects like ______ and ______, also intracranial hypertension, scoliosis
    • adult
    • children
    • lipohypertrophy and hypoglycemia
  13. What 3 pharmacological treatments can be used for GH excess?
    • Somatostatin analogues (octreotide, lanreotide, pasireotide)
    • GH receptor antagonists; decreases IGF-1 but not GH
    • Dopamine agonists
  14. What disease results from GH excess and whats the gold standard for diagnosis
    • Acromegaly
    • glucose tolerance test
  15. What are the 2 forms of somatostatin analogs?
    Octreotide & lanreotide bind ____ and ____ while pasireotide binds all receptors except ____
    • SST-14 and SST-28
    • SSTR2 and SSTR5
    • SSTR4
  16. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is...
    A. Low FSH/LH and low estrogen/androgens
    B. High FSH/LH and low estrogen/androgens
    C. Low FSH/LH and high estrogen/androgens
    D. High FSH/LH and high estrogen/androgens
  17. lanreotide has a _____ t1/2 than octreotide
    how is efficacy measured?
    • shorter
    • glucose tolerance test (GTT)
  18. what is pegvisomant and what is its indication
    How are glucose levels effected?
    • GHR antagonist for acromegaly unresponsive to surgery or SST analogs
    • causes hypoglycemia
  19. what is prolactins role? TRH will ____ prolactin secretion and Dopamine will ______ secretion
    • breast development/lactation
    • increase
    • decrease
  20. What is the most common pituitary disorder? How does this affect GnRH?
    • prolactin excess
    • decreased GnRH
  21. What are the 2 US available dopamine agonists? Which one is first choice?
    bromocriptine and cabergoline (first)
  22. Low sex steroids can stimulate GnRH release from the ____, which stimulates FSH and LH release from the _______ which act upon _____ to produce steroids and inhibin
    • hypothalamus
    • anterior pituitary
    • gonads
  23. How is sexual underdevelopment from hypogonadotropic hypogonadism treated?
    • gonadal hormones (estrogens/androgens)
    • (NOT FSH/LH)
  24. leuprolide is a type of __ ______ and can be used diagnostically for central vs peripheral _______ ________
    • GnRH
    • precocious puberty
  25. T/F: GnRH analogs have ADEs such as decreased gonadal steroids and are considered Category B, safe for pregnancy
    F: Category X, unsafe for pregnancy
  26. What are the 2 FDA approved GnRH antagonists?
    ganirelix (Antagon) and cetrorelix (Cetrotide)
  27. hCG can be detected by ________ in the urine or by _____ in the plasma
    • beta antisera
    • RIA
  28. ____ can be used to complete follicle maturation and induce ovulation
    _____ can be used to induce production of follicles for ovulation
    Both can be used to induce mature oocyte development
    • hCG
    • FSH
  29. what is the most common AE with gonadotropin use in males
  30. what is cryptorchidism? what is used to treat it
    • Failure of testicles to descend
    • hCG
  31. urofollitropin and follitropin-alpha are forms of what
  32. why are some preparations of hCG IM only
    they are urine derived so impure