SSCI 165 Final

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  1. Apartheid (Africa)
    was a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government of South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority 'non-white' inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by white people was maintained.
  2. Panama Canal
    Built from 1904 to 1914, it is the ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade.
  3. Treaty of Tordesillas
    Divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe and Spain and Portugal along a meridan west of Cape verde islands (off west coast of Africa).
  4. The Dirty War
    Military regime that followed was a reign of terror known as la Guerra sucia, in which any dissidents were kidnapped, tortured, murdered, and their children were sold. refers to the state-sponsored violence against Argentine citizenry and left-wing guerrillas and their sympathizers from roughly 1976 to 1983. (Argentina)
  5. Insurgent Groups
    used to describe a movement's unlawfulness by virtue of not being authorized by or in accordance with the law of the land. Carries an implication that the rebels cause is illegitimate, whereas those rising up will see the authority itself as being illegitimate.
  6. Maquiladoras
    The term given to zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. market. The low-wage workers in the primarily foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then export finished goods.
  7. Cuidades Perdidas
    Factories that assemble imported, duty-free components and raw materials into finished industrial products in Mexico.
  8. Land-Bridge
    A strip of land connecting two continents.
  9. The Aztecs
    Founded Tenochtitlan now Mexico City. Was the greatest and richestcity in the Americas during 14th century. (Mexico)
  10. The Incas
    The headquarters were in Cuzco Basin of the Peruvian Andes. They forged the greatest ancient empire on the continent. Their empire stretched from Colombia to central Chile. At height they had over 20 million people wit highly centralized administration. (South America)
  11. Hernan Cortes
    Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547). (Bad)
  12. Jose de San Martin
    For Spain against Napolean; helped liberate Argentina, Chile, Peru. Concentrated on Southern countries. (South America) (Good)
  13. Simon Bolivar
    AKA George Washington on SA. South American revolutionary leader who defeated the Spanish in 1819, was made president of Greater Colombia (now Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador), and helped liberate (1823-1834) Peru and Bolivia. Nick named the Liberator. Concentrated on Northern countries. (Good)
  14. The Tonton Macoutes
    Quasi military group led by Duvalier who brutally suppresssed dissidents and killed tens of thousands of Haitans. (Bad)
  15. Castro
    Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba. (Bad)
  16. Chavez
    President or Leader of Venezuela who considers the United States as an "evil" place. Has been controversial in his return to socialism and his relationship with Castro, Hussein, and Quaddafi.(Bad)
  17. Evo Morales
    President or Leader of Bolivia. Has joined Hugo Chavez's campaign. Many disagree with the return to socialism, and his support for recreational coca use. (Bad)
  18. Juan Peron
    President of Argentina (1946-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte Peron, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor. (Argentina) (Good)
  19. Eva Peron
    2nd Wife of Juan Peron, ex-radio actor that came from lower class. Exhorted money from the government to give to the poor. Gave 50 million to the poor through the Eva Peron foundation, died from Ovarian cancer, gave women right to vote in Argentina in 47'. (Argentina) (Good)
  20. Isabel Peron
    Vice president and 3rd wife of Juan Perón; Became Argentina's president after Juan died, making her 1st woman president of the World; Ousted and military took over her regime in 1976. (Agrentina) (Good)
  21. Augusto Pinochet
    In 1973 he overthrew the government and most of the government was murdered. Over 15 years, he led a reign of terror. He dissolved congress, and banned other political parties, and over 85,000 citizens were murdered and others were tortured. And in 1989, he was voted out of office but still remained a military leader. He also wrote the Amnesty Law of 1978, exculpates any person who committed crimes between Sept. 11, 1973-March 10, 1978. He was arrested in the UK by a Spanish judge and died while under house arrest in Chile in 2006. (Chile) (Bad)
  22. Domingo Sarmiento
    Liberal politician and president of Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade, launched internal reforms in education and transportation. Tried to imitate Europe, encouraged Europeans to come to the country and made it look like Europe as well. (Good)
  23. Pope Alexander VI
    Made the treaty of Tordesillas. (South America) (Good)
  24. FARC (Rev. Armed Forces of Colombia)
    Is the most powerful insurgent group. In 1999, they convinced the government to demilitarize the area south of Bogota and leaving them into power. (Colombia) (Bad)
  25. Muammar Qaddafi
    Wanted Libya to be focus of a United Arab World, banned all alcohol from Libya, nationalized banks & banned foreign languages, nationalized oil resources and set embargoes against Israel, wrote "Green Book" to explain faults of democracy, supplies any rebel Muslim groups with weapons, created the 600 mi. long water pipeline called the "Great Man-Made River" started in 1984. (Bad)
  26. Huophouet Boigny
    First president of the Ivory Coast. 80's and 90's - very authoritarian President - wasted money on ostentation projects (St. Peter's Cathedral) (Bad)
  27. Mathieu Kerekou
    1972 - practiced ruthless anti-white sentiment, mass killings and riots, 1990, Kerekou, ashamed, publicly denounced Marxism and was a new man! 1996, was elected again, and restored peace, stability, and economic growth! (Benin) (Bad)
  28. Charles taylor
    In 1997 was elected president in Liberia and began a reign of terror that ended only when he was forced into exile in 2003. (Bad)
  29. Paul Biya
    Hand picked, a Christian from the South. Horrible money manager, "Social Democratic Front" forms and kills them off. In 6 months over 30 new political parties and dozens of independents; during term, salaries dropped over 70% economy in shambles, fighting continued, and people are unhappy. But he won NEXT election, outcry of fraud. (Cameroon) (Bad)
  30. Jean-Bedel Bokassa
    Led military coup, brutal leader, wanted every member of opposition wiped out, personally took part in gruesome public torturing & murder, horrible money manager, killed economy, France bail out,spent $20 million (mostly France's) to crown himself "Emperor" of the new "Central African Empire", flew to Libya for more aid, while gone, was impeached and replaced by Andre Kolingba. Arrested when returned, died in prison in 1996. (Central African Republic) (Bad)
  31. Michele Bachelet
    Former President, single mother of 3 & former Pinochet POW left office with over 80% approval rating. (Chile) (Good)
  32. Francisco Macias Nguema
    1970 became president with opposition, declares himself "President for Life" - lead terrorist regime, was executed by coup after over 2/3 of country killed or fled. Nephew won a rigged election. (Equatorial Guinea) (Bad)
  33. Albert Schweitzer
    Was a missionary and physician who helped set up a hospital in Gabon. And who also won the Nobel Prize for his work. (Good)
  34. "Ninjas" & "Cobras"
    Rebel militias whom still fight with the government. (Republic of Congo) (Bad)
  35. Tutsi's
    Minority, favored by colonial rule, tall, light skinned, thin nose (elegant). Fighting from 1959, 1994 - in just 3 months over 1 million people massacred by Hutu militias attempting a genocide. (Rwanda and Burundi)
  36. Hutu's
    The majority ethnic tribe in Rwanda who was responsible for the 1994 genocide. (Rwanda and Burundi)
  37. Idi Amin
    He took over the government and overthrew his ally. And started his own reign of terror, and in 8 months there was over 300,000 executed. He started war with Tanzania and was crushed by them, he later than fled to Libya. (Uganda) (Bad)
  38. Daniel Moi
    Was the president of Kenya. He sought to suppress all opponents. After air force tried a military coup, he had them disbanded. (Bad)
  39. Bakili Muluzi
    Great leader, return to democracy with all the same freedoms we enjoy, diversified economy, lots of resources, strong, stable government, and good tourism. (Malawi) (Good)
  40. Robert Mugabe
    Is an oppressive dictator. In 1998 his land redistribution took land from whites and gave them to the blacks. Which caused chaos and fighting. (Zimbabwe) (Bad)
  41. Nelson Mandela
    One of the leaders of the African National Congress who led a struggle to end apartheid and was elected president in 1994 in the first all-race election in South Africa. (Good)
  42. Las madres
    Mothers and grandmothers who walk around in a circle who continue to seek answers about their children where about. (Argentina) (Good)
  43. Carlos Menem
    President of Argentina during the 1980s and helped economy, but pardoned those responsible in the "Dirty War".
  44. Why were the Aztecs so great? And why were they conquered so easily?
    The Aztecs were great because they were very urban, internal specialization, skilled laborers, and complex irrigation systems. They were conquered easily because they trusted Hernan Cortes whom was seen as the Aztec prophecy so they did as he said.
  45. Where was the Aztec capital? Where was the Incan capital?
    The present day capital of Aztecs is Mexico City in Mexico. Incan capital is in the Cuzco Basin of the Peruvian Andes.
  46. Where is the most densely populated area of the Americas?
    The Caribbean basin
  47. Why is Cuba's huge economic potential being wasted?
    Castro uses all the resources to prevent civil unrest, poverty and drug-use has risen; tourism has declined. There was also a bad hurricane in 1998 in which they have not fully recovered from.
  48. What exactly is the relationship between Puerto Rico & the US?
    All Puerto Ricans are US citizens; they pay no federal taxes and US minimum wage laws apply; has considerable autonomy and own Constitution; receive billions in subsidies annually from the US.
  49. Are the Puerto Ricans happy?
    No the Puerto Ricans aren't happy. 50% still live below the poverty line.
  50. What 2 sections are the Caribbean islands split into? Name the Southernmost islands.
    Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles. Trinidad and Tobago
  51. How large is Mexico compared to the rest of Middle America?
    It is bigger than all the rest combined.
  52. How large is Mexico City?
    Mexico city is the urban primacy meaning that it is one city that dominates everything else.
  53. What economic agreement should be helping Mexico's economy?
    NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement
  54. Why is the demographic situation in Belize so fascinating?
    It is the honeymoon destination so there is great tourism.
  55. What natural disaster (worst in W. Hem. history) devastated Honduras and Nicaragua in 1998?
    Hurricane Mitch
  56. What country (known as the Switz. of L. Amer.) has the oldest democracy in Latin America?
    Costa Rica
  57. What country tried unsuccessfully to construct a Panama Canal in the 1880's ?
  58. What did the "Treaty of Tordesillas" do? And under whose orders?
    Divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe and Spain and Portugal along a meridan west of Cape verde islands (off west coast of Africa). Under Pope Alexander VI.
  59. What radical move did the Portuguese gov't do to stop Brazil from winning independence?
    By moving the capital to Rio to invade Napolean.
  60. By moving the capital to Rio to invade Napolean.
  61. What country has the lowest GNP in all of South America?
  62. Name the only 2 landlocked countries in Latin America.
    Bolivia and paraguay
  63. What law did Pinochet create to protect himself if he were to be arrested for war crimes?
    Amnesty Law which exculpates any persons who committed crimes between Sept. 11, 1973 and March 10, 1978.
  64. How did Argentina and Domingo Sarmiento react towards European immigration?
    He tried to immitate Europe.
  65. What sort of activities demonstrated that the Perons were poor money managers?
    Juan Peron took all of Argentina's wealth and squandered it.
  66. Who was the first female President in the Western Hemisphere?
    Isabel Peron
  67. Why is the US uneasy with Hugo Chavez, and Evo Morales?
    Chavez has been controversial with his return to socialism and his relationships with Castro, Hussein, and Qaddafi. Morales has joined Chavez's campaign.
  68. What did former President Carlos Menem do that enraged the families of "Dirty War" victims?
    He pardoned all those whom were offenders in the Dirty War.
  69. What one resource are most North African economies based on?
    Based exclusively on oil.
  70. Why was the "Aswan High Dam" a success?
    Yes it increased fertile land by 50%
  71. What is the "Muslim Front" and why is it called that?
    Represents a transition zone from countries which are majority Muslim, to those which are not majority Muslim.
  72. Which, in Africa, were the former French colonies?
    Senegal, Mauritania, Burkina-Faso, Mali, Niger, Chad, Djibouti, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin, Morrocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Central African Repulic, Gabon, Congo
  73. Which, in Africa, were the former Britrish colonies?
    Sierra Leone, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania, Kenya, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswanna, Lesotho, Swaziland, South Africa
  74. Which, in Africa, were the former Portuguese colonies?
    Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique
  75. Which, in Africa, were first German colonies and then passed on after WWI?
    Cameroon, Togo, Tanzania, Namibia
  76. What did Qaddaffi do to try and unify the Arab-Muslim world?
    Banned all alcohol; nationalized banks and banned foreign languages; nationalized oil resources and set embargoes against Israel.
  77. Which countries in Africa that HAVE ECONOMIC POTENTIAL?
    Ghana, Benin, Ivory Coast
  78. Which countries in Africa are landlocked?
    Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho, Central African Republic, Congo, The Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Ethiopia, Mauritania, Niger, Chad
  79. What acts made Bokassa so insanely brutal and gruesome?
    Stored body parts of those killed in a freezer to eat and give to guests to eat without knowing, killed over 200 school children and teachers because they did not want to wear his uniforms.
  80. What eventually happened to Bokassa?
    While away in Libya he was impeached, when he returned he was imprisoned and died while in there.
  81. What was the former name of "The Congo?" What caused the name change?
    Former name was Zaire. Refugees took over Zaire and decided to change it.
  82. Which 3 countries were most affected by the fighting of the Tutsi's and Hutu's?
    Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi
  83. The US embassy in which 2 major cities were bombed in 1998?
    Tanzania and Kenya
  84. Why does Eritrea have bragging rights?
    They won the war against Ethiopia which is bigger and had more soldiers in their army.
  85. Why do the countries in Southern Africa have so much more economic potential?
    Its the richest region materially with lots of agricultural diversity and has tons of mineral reserves.
  86. Which country was actually a South African colony after WWI?
  87. Which country is reaping the benefits of their successful "ORAPA" project?
  88. What 4 racial categories was every newborn infant put into under Apartheid?
    Black, white, colored, or Asian
  89. What factors lead to the fall of Apartheid?
    Violent uprisings and in 1990 the African National Congress was allowed again.
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SSCI 165 Final
2012-03-21 17:40:17
SSCI 165 Final Exam

Final Review
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