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  1. toddlerhood occurs between ___ & ___ years of age
    1 & 3
  2. toddlerhood involves movement around by ___ or ___
    crawling or walking
  3. creates opportunities for exploration
  4. toddlerhood creates opportunities for matches between ___ and ___ in the world and the language that describes them
    objects and actions
  5. 3 major language development milestones in toddlerhood
    • first words
    • gestures
    • referential gestures
  6. marks beginning of transition from pre-verbal to verbal communication
    first words
  7. occurs ~ 12 months of age
    first words
  8. words are:
    • composed of meaningful sounds
    • symbolic
    • arbitrary
  9. word that means: represent something else in the world
  10. means: sound sequences do not directly stand for the concepts they represent
  11. each new word creates an entry in the ___
  12. Sound--> meaning--> part of speech
    lexical entry
  13. refer to significan people and object in infants' everyday lives
    first words
  14. ex: mama, dada, doggie, baba...everyday life words
    first words
  15. first words must meet __ criteria to be considered a true word
  16. 3 criteria true words must meet
    • produced spontaneously with clear intention and purpose
    • has recognizable pronunciation similar to adult form
    • used word consistently and extended use beyond the original context
  17. first words may exhibit ___ or idiosyncratic, word-like productions taht are used consistently and meaningfully but do not approximate adult forms
    phonetically-consistent forms
  18. ex. of phonetically consistent form or idiosyncratic word-like productions
    "ahhhh" for water as well as for other objects or actions
  19. facilitate adopting a stable pronunciation to communicate in a particular situation
    first words
  20. emerge during the prelinguistic period for the purpose of dommunication and precede spoken language
  21. continue to play a role in language development during second and third years of life
  22. come to rely less on _____ and more on words when categorizing or labeling new objects during second year
  23. indicate a specific referent and have a stable meaning across different contexts; share some properties of first true words
    referential gestures
  24. appear as children transition from the prelinguistic to one-word stage
    referential gestures
  25. ex: holding a fist to the ear to indicate "telephone"
    referential gestures
  26. exhibit what 2 things as transition from on-to- two word stage
    • gesture-word combinations
    • two-gesture combination
  27. stop combining ___ when transition to two-word utterances
    two referential gestures
  28. Norms for phoneme attainment
    Sander's customary ages of production and ages of mastery of speech sounds (2)
  29. acquisition of ____ production varies widely
  30. refers to age at which 50% of children produce a given sound accurately in mulitple positions in words
    customary age of production
  31. refers to age at which a majority of children produce a sound accurately
    age of mastery
  32. systematic rule-governed patterns that simplify speech production
    phonological processes
  33. 3 categories of patterns
    • syllable structure processes
    • substitution processes
    • assimilation processes
  34. sound changes that simplify speech production
    syllable structure processes
  35. sound changes in which one class of sounds replaces another
    substitution processes
  36. these can represent place, manner and voicing changes
    substitution processes
  37. sound changes in which one sound influences another to become more like it
    assimilation processes
  38. eliminate use of many processes by
  39. At what age do children have their firsts:
    -hear many new words, grammatical constructions and language functions
    -use decontextualized language to talk about objects, events, and thoughts not situated in the immediate context
    -gain important abilities in emergents literacy, which marks transition to compreheding and expressing language in both oral and written modalities
    -acquisition of emergent literacy skills markis the crowning achievement of this period
    -begin to master form, content, and use in new ways
    preschool period (2 yrs) age 3-5
  40. grounded in the immediate context- the here and now
    contextualized language
  41. relies on background knowledge that a speaker and a listener share, on gestures, intonation, and immediately present situational cues
    contextualized language
  42. used to discuss people, objects and events that are not immediately present
    decontextualized language
  43. -relies hevily on language itself to construct meaning
    -may not contain context cues
    -does not assume speakers and listeners share background knowledge or context
    -cannot rely on immediate physical context to help communicate to listener
    -uses highly precise syntax and vocabulary to represent events that are beyond the here and now
    -fundamentals to academic success; nearly all classroom learning focuses on events beyond the immediate context
    decontextualized language
  44. Ex: "gimme that" while pointing to a ball on the floor
    contextualized language
  45. Ex: mom, I spilled milk on the couch
    decontextualized language
  46. earliest stage of learning about reading and writing prior to school entry
    emergent literacy
  47. -does not involve reading or writing in a conventional manner
    -depends on a solid oral foundation
    -depends largely on metalinguistic ability or the ability to view language as an object of attention
    emergent literacy
  48. what makes a solid oral foundation?
    well developed phonological system for making grapheme (letter) to phoneme (sound) correspondences and good vocabularies for decoding and comprehending text
  49. Ex: pretending to write, reading a storybook
    metalinguistic ability
  50. 3 important achievements that emergent literacy includes
    • alphabet knowledge
    • print awareness
    • phonological awareness
  51. knowledge about the letters of the alphabet
    alphabet knowledge
  52. understanding of teh forms and functions of written language
    print awareness
  53. sensitivity to the sound units that make up speech (phonemes, syllables, words,)
    phonological awareness
  54. -begin to show emerging knowledge of alphabet before 3 years of age
    -may know one or two letters before second birthday
    -Show interest in specific letters occurring on signs and labels
    -may be familiar with letters in own name by 5 years of age
    -Learn alphabet letters in a systematic way
    alphabet knowledge
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