H 320 Final

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H 320 Final
2012-03-21 19:43:07
Introduction Human Disease

Pussy, Money, Weed
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  1. Chronic Obstructive PulmonaryDisease (COPD)
    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD),includes a number of conditions in whichthe exchange of respiratory gasses isineffective. It includes chronic bronchitis,emphysema, and chronic asthma.
  2. Zoonotic
    Any disease or infection that is transmissible from animals to hmans and vice versa
  3. Types of Pathogens
    • Bacteria (slamonellosis, the plague)
    • Viruses (rabies, swine influenza, ebola)
    • Parasites (taxoplasmosis, malaria)
    • Fungi (dermatophytoses, ringworm)
    • Prions (vCJD, Mad cow disease)
  4. Vector-Borne Diseases
    • A type of zoonotic disease in which the pathogen is transmitted from animal to humans by a vector
    • The vecor is commonly insects that carries and transmits the pathogen
    • often times, a host are required as reservoirs for that pathogens
    • pathogen- vector- host
  5. Prion
    • A disease causing protein (re-configured)
    • Misfolded proteins
  6. Dyspnea
    • Loss of breath
    • The most common form of COPD
  7. Extrinsic Asthma
    • Allergic or Atopic: tends to have allergic triggers and antigen response
    • Tends to run in families: Starts in childhood
    • Decreases with age
    • Most Common
  8. Intrinsic Asthma
    • Not always a clear distinction
    • Typically non-allergic in nature
    • ANY unpleasant event/stimulatn may trigger (excercise, emotion, etc)
  9. Risk Factors for Asthma
    • Family history
    • Allergic condition
    • Obesity
    • Smoking
    • Exposure to exhaust fumes or other types of pollution
    • Low birth weight
  10. Hepatitis A transmission
    Fecal-Oral through food cosumption or person-to-person
  11. Hepatitis A Signs and Symptoms
    Fatigue, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain or discomfort, especially in teh area of your liver on your right side beneath your lower ribs, loss of appetite, low grade fever, jaundice
  12. Hepatitis B transmission
    • Sharing drug needles
    • engaging in high risk sexual activity
    • from mother to her newborn during birht
    • blood transfusions
    • personal contact with infected person
    • blood and semen
  13. Hep C Transmission
    Blood products
  14. Hep D Transmission
    ONly found in people who carry the Hep B virus
  15. Hep E Transmission
    Fecal-oral, usally waterborne
  16. Hep B Signs and Symptoms
    Abdominal pain, dark urine, fever, joint pain, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, weakness and fatigue, jaundice
  17. Hep C Signs and Symptoms
    Fatigue, fever, nausea or poor appetite, muscle and joint pains, tenderness in the area of your liver
  18. Hep D Signs and Symptoms
    Fatigue, excessive tiredness, not feeling very hungry, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, a low grade fever, muscle pain, joint pain, sore throrat, dark urine, light colored stool
  19. Hep E Signs and Symptoms
    Jaundice (yellow discoloration of the skin and sclera of the eyes, dark urine, and pale stools), anorexia, an enlarged tender liver
  20. Hep A At risk-populations
    People who live in areas with poor sanitation, older, people, travelers
  21. Hep B At risk-populations
    Travelers, students, health care workers
  22. Hep C At risk-populations
    Long term kidney dialysis, regular contact with blood at work , blood transfusions before 1992, sexual contact
  23. Hep D At risk-populations
    Carrying Hepatitis B virus, IV drug use, multiple sexual partners, blood trnsfusions
  24. Hep E At risk-populations
    travelers, pregnant women
  25. Hep A Treatments
    Rest, avoid alcohol and substances toxic to the liver (tylenol), vaccine for children under 1, don't eat fatty food during those monts
  26. Hep B Treatments
    • Vaccine is used for both prevention and treatment
    • One of two STIs you can vaccinate against
    • Routine vaccination among children and adults
  27. Hep D Treatments
  28. Hepatitis Stigma
    • 4.4 million people in the US living with chronic Hepatitis
    • 80,000 new infections each year: leading cause of liver cancer
    • Most common reason for liver transplantation
  29. Influenza
    Respiratory condtion caused by influenza viruses: Influenza A, Influenza B, Influenza C
  30. Influenza Prevalence
    • Worldwide: 5 million cases severe illness
    • 250,000-500,000 deaths
    • 5-20% of US population affected each year
  31. Flu seasons
    • Temperature climates: autumn and winter
    • Tropical Climates: circulate throughout the year; 2 peaks during rainy seasons
  32. Influenza At Risk
    • Children (under 2)
    • Elders
    • Pregnant women
    • People with chronic health conditions
  33. Influenza Transmission
    • Respiratory droplets
    • Incubation Period: 18 hours- 4 days
  34. Influenza Symptoms
    • chills
    • fever
    • fatigue
    • sore throat
    • coughing
  35. Influenza Prevention
    • Influenza Vaccine
    • Antiviral
    • Cough into the curve of elbow
    • Wash your hands
  36. Upper Respiratory Diseases
    • Infections, allergic ractions or conditions occuring within the head
    • Inflamed the sinuses nose and throat
  37. Lower Respiratory diseases
    • Those that affect the lungs
    • COPDS, Chronic Lung Disease
  38. COPDS
    • Asthma
    • Dyspnea
    • Bronciectasis
    • Emphysema
    • Bronchitis
  39. Signs and Symptoms of Asthma
    • Shortness of breath
    • Chest tightness or pain
    • trouble sleeping caused by shorntess of breath, coughing, or wheezing
    • An audible whistling or wheezing sound when exhaling
    • Bouts of coughing or wheezing that are worsened by a respiratory virus such as a cold or the flue
  40. Sings and symptoms of COPD
    • shortness of breath
    • wheezing
    • chest tightness
    • chronic cough
  41. Asthma Treatment
    corticosteroids, inhalers
  42. COPD treatments
    smoking cessation, bronchodilator use
  43. Type 1 Diabetes
    • Juvenille Diabetes or Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
    • Usually occurs in childhood or adolescence
    • Usually early onset, but any age
    • Now way to prevent
    • Most common age of getting it: 10 year sold or younger
    • A potential genetic predispostion apparent
    • Body doesn't produce insulin
    • Considered an autoimmune disease
  44. Types 2 Diabetes
    • Adult onset or non insulin dependent
    • usually starts as insulin resistance, where cells don't use insulin properly
    • pancreas has to work overtime in order for the body to recognize it and allow blood glucose to flow through
  45. Sign and symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
    • frequent urination
    • unusual thirst
    • extreme hunger
    • unusual weight loss
    • extreme fatique
    • irritability
    • blurred vision
  46. Type 2 diabetes
    • Any of Type 1
    • Frequent infections
    • blurred vision
    • cuts/bruises that are lsow to heal
    • tingling/numbness in the hands/feet
    • recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
    • often asymptomatic
  47. How many and which diseases are vaccinated in children today?
    35 vaccinations
  48. In 2008, an outbreak of what disease occurred in San Diego? How did the initial case get the disease and how was it spread? What did the CDC do in that case
  49. What condition does the public associate with increased vaccinations? What vaccine ingredients(s) is/are associated with the condition(s)
    • Autism
    • Thimerasol, mercury, aluminum and formaldahyd
  50. What is herd immunity
    When a large percentage (majority, typically 80%) of the population is vaccinated, it reduces the spread of diseases.
  51. What disease has strong herd immunity and was eradicated in the U.S., as indicated in the video
    Polio, smallpox
  52. Every day, _________ acquire asexually transmitted infectionworldwide, including HIV
    1 million
  53. Every year, more than _________ new cases of curable STIs occurworldwide among 15-49 years old
    340 million
  54. Multile Sclerosis
    • autoimmune disease affecting the brain and spinal cord
    • Prevalence: 2.5 million peopole worldwide, 400,000 in the US
    • Etiology: Idopathic
    • Risk factors: Sex/age
  55. Multiple Sclerosis: symptoms
    • Muscle: muscle spasms, loss of balance, numbness, coordination problems, tremors
    • Bowel and Bladder: consitpation, incontin ence, strongurge to/ difficult/ frequenc urination
    • Eye: disocmfort, double vision, vision loss, uncontrollable REM
    • Brain and Nerve: Deppression, dizziness, decreased attention span, difficuty reasoning
    • SPeech: Slurred speech, trouble chewing/ swalloing
    • Most Common: fatique
  56. Parkinson's Disease
    • Most common parkinsonism
    • Prevalence: 4-6 million cases worldwide, 1 million in the US
    • Incidence: 50,000-60,000 diagnoses each year in the US
    • Etiology: Idiopathich, genetics, environmet
    • Symptoms: tremor, balance/coordination
  57. Dementia
    • Loss of brain funcitons that occurs with certain diseases
    • Affects thinking, memory, language, judgemtn and behavior
    • Most are non-reversals
  58. How common is Dementia?
    • Prevalence: 24.3-37 million cases world wide; 5.3 million in US
    • Risk factors: age, smoking, drinking, atherosclerosis
  59. Types of Dementia
    • Cortical Dementia
    • Subcortical Demntia
    • Progressive Dementia
    • Primary Dementia
    • Secondary Dementia
  60. Alzheimer's Disease
    • Most common cause of dementia (50-60%)
    • Prevalence: 5.1 million in the US
    • Risk Factors: Sex, age, genetics, history of head trauma
    • Signs/symptoms: language problems, personality chagnes, change in sleep patterns, difficulty writing, incontinence, swallowing problems
  61. Types of ALzheimers
    • Early onset: sympoms aber before 60
    • Late onset: symptoms appear after 60
  62. Furture of Dementia
    • estimates indicate 20% of people will have Dementia in 2030
    • By 2050 someone will develop alzheimers every 30 seconds
  63. Cancer
    Cancer originates from mutant DNA sequences that reroute crucial pathways regulating tissues homeostatis, cell survival, and/or cell death
  64. Breast Cancer Risk Facters
    • Female
    • Advancing Age
    • Personal History of Breast cancer
    • Family history of breast cancer
    • inherited genes that increase cancer risk
  65. Other Putative Risk Factors
    • Obesity
    • Drinking alcohol
    • Having your first child after age 35
    • Postmenopausal hormone therapy
    • smoking
    • animal fat
  66. Breast cancer risk factors in inuits
    • excess weight
    • High fat diet
    • excess red meat
    • low intake of fruits and vegatables
    • excess alcohol
    • low excercise
  67. Breast Cancer Stage 0
    Stage 0 is used to describe non-invasive breast cancers, such as DCIS. in stage 0, there is no evidence of cancer cells or non-cancerous abnormal cells breaking out of the part of the breast in which they started, or getting through to or invading neighboring normal tissue
  68. Breast Cancer Stage 1
    • Stage 1 describes invasive breast cancer (cancer cells are breaking through or to invading normal surrounding breast tissue
    • The tumor meausres up to 2 cm and
    • NO lymph nodes are involved
  69. Breast Cancer Stage IV
    Stage 1V describes invasive breast cancer that has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes to other organs of the body, such as the lungs, distant lymph nodes, skin, bones, liver, or brain
  70. Breast Cancer Treatments: Chemotherapy
    • chemotherapy may given to shrink the cancer before surgery
    • early-stage invasive breast cancer to destroy cancer cells left behind after surgery
    • Advanced stage breast caner to slow tumor growth and prevent metastasis
  71. Chemotherapy Combination
    • AT: adriamycin and taxotere
    • AC: adriamycin and Cytoxan
    • CMF: cytoaxan, methotrexate, and flourouacil
  72. Radiation Therapy after lumpectomy
    • early stage
    • 4 cm or smaller
    • located in one site
    • removed with clear margins
  73. Hormonal Therapy
    aromtase inhibitors
  74. Metastatic Breast Cancer
    The term metastatic, describes a cancer that has spread to distant organs from the orginal tumor site
  75. Symptoms of metastatic breast cancer
    • Bone pain
    • shortness of breath
    • lack of appetite
    • weight loss
    • neuroogical pain or weakness
  76. STI
    • syphilis and ghonoreah the most comon STI's
    • syphillis was the leading cause of cariac and neurological disease in teh US
  77. Syphillis
    • recognized in 1494 in Naples
    • The Great Pox
  78. STis in the US
    more than 25 diseases are spread primarily through sexual activity
  79. Most At-risk groups
    • people aged 15-24 years old
    • individuals who practice unsafe sex
    • MSM
    • women
    • travelers
  80. Syphillis
    • Etiology: Bacteria
    • Transmission: contact between open lesion of an infected individual and mucous membranes or skin abrasions
    • Risk Factors: gender, age, unprotected intercourse, men who have sex with men (MSM), drug users
    • It is curable
  81. Syphilis: Signs and Symptoms
    • Primary stage: painless cancre sore
    • Secondary Stage: body rash, painless red lumps
    • Tertiary Stage: bacteria may lie dormant for 1-40 years
    • damages cardiovascular system
  82. Chlamydia
    • Etiology: chlamydia trachomatis Bacterium
    • The most common bacterial STI in US
    • The "silent disease"
  83. Public Health
    The science and practice of protecting and improving the healthof a community, as by preventive medicine, health education,control of communicable diseases, application of sanitarymeasures, and monitoring of environmental hazards.
  84. Disease
    a disordered or incorrectly functioning organ, part,structure, or system of the body resulting from the effect ofgenetic or developmental errors, infection, poisons,nutritional deficiency or imbalance, toxicity, or unfavorableenvironmental factors; illness; sickness; ailment.
  85. Morbidity
    The incidence or prevalence of a disease.
  86. Mortality
    the number of deaths in a given period
  87. Prevalence
    the number of cases of a specific disease present in a given population at a certain time.
  88. Incidence
    the probability of developing a particular disease during a given period of time; the numerator is the number of new cases during the specified time period and the denominator is the population at risk during the period.
  89. Epidemiology
    • The branch of medicine that deals with the study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease in populations.
  90. Etiology
    the study of all factors that may be involved in the development of a disease, including the susceptibility of the patient, the nature of the disease agent, and the way in which the patient's body is invaded by the agent
  91. Extrinsic Asthma
    • asthma caused by some factor in the environment, usually atopic in nature
    • Stress, Anxiety
  92. Intrinsic Asthma
    a nonseasonal, nonallergic form of asthma, which usually first occurs later in life than allergic asthma and tends to be chronic and persistent rather than episodic. Precipitating factors include inhalation of irritating pollutants, such as dust particles, smoke, aerosols, strong cooking odors, and paint fumes and other volatile substances. Intrinsic asthma may also be triggered by exposure to cold, damp weather; sudden inhalation of cold, dry air; physical exercise; violent coughing or laughing; respiratory infections, such as the common cold;
  93. Etiology
    • The cause or origin of a disease or disorder as determined by medical diagnosis.
  94. Nosocomial
    Of or being a secondary disorder associated with being treated in a hospital but unrelated to the patient's primary condition.
  95. Iatrogenic
    caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures. An iatrogenic disorder is a condition that is caused by medical personnel or procedures or that develops through exposure to the environment of a health care facility
  96. Idiopathic
    Of unknown cause or spontaneous origin.
  97. Metastatic
    The term used to describe a secondary cancer, or one that has spread from one area of the body to another.
  98. Health Disparities
    refer to gaps in the quality of health andhealth care across racial, ethnic, sexual orientation and socioeconomic groups.
  99. Weathering Hypothesis
    Theweathering hypothesis proposes that thehealth of African American women maybegin to deteriorate in early adulthoodas a physical consequence of cumulativesocioeconomic disadvantage. As aresult, the racial differential in infantmortality, for example, is larger at oldermaternal ages than at younger ages.
  100. Leading Causes of Death
    • Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
    • Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases
    • Tobacco Control
    • Maternal and Infant Health
    • Motor Vehicle Safety
    • Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
    • Occupational Safety
    • Cancer Prevention
    • Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention
    • Public Health Preparedness and Response
  101. REM sleep
    REM sleep in adult humans typically occupies 20–25% of total sleep, about 90–120 minutes of a night's sleep. During a normal night of sleep, humans usually experience about four or five periods of REM sleep; they are quite short at the beginning of the night and longer toward the end
  102. Autoimmune Disease
    Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts as self, which allows an immune response against its own cells and tissues.

    Diabetes and Multiple Sclerosis
  103. Carl Von Linnaeus
    Father of classification
  104. Margaret Sanger
    birth Control
  105. Imhotep
    considered the first physician, architect, and engineer, founder of medicine
  106. Hippocrates
    • Greatest physician of his era
    • fater of modern medicine
  107. Galen
    Biggest contribution to understanding the circulatory system
  108. Edward Jenner
    • Father of immunology
    • Small pox