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2012-03-31 22:01:26

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  1. What are the 2 major functions of the respiratory system?
    • supply body with oxygen
    • dispose of body's carbon dioxide
  2. What are the 4 processes that make up respiration?
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • external respiration
    • trasport
    • internal respiration
  3. Which process of respiration includes moving air into and out of the lungs?
    pulmonary ventilation
  4. What is the process of respiration where there is gas exchange between the lungs and the blood?
    external respiration
  5. What does the process of transport in respiration include?
    transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide to tissues
  6. What does the process of internal respiration include?
    gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues
  7. What are the 2 zones of the respiratory system?
    • conduction zone
    • respiratory zone
  8. What zone provides a rigid conduit for air to reach the sites of gas exchange?
    conducting zone
  9. What is the respiratory zone?
    • site of gas exchange
    • bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
  10. What does the nasal cavity have a superior, middle, and inferior of?
  11. What type of epithelium is the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity?
    pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium
  12. What are the 3 functions of the nasal cavity?
    • to warm, filter, and moisten air
    • for olfaction (smell)
    • and a resonating chamber (voice)
  13. What is another word for smell?
  14. What is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium?
  15. Where are the pharyngeal and tubal tonsils?
  16. What are the Eustachian tubes?
    tubal tonsils
  17. What is the tough protein the larynx is lined with?
  18. What 2 things are lined with nonkeritinized stratified squamous epithelium?
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  19. Where are the palatine and lingual tonsils?
  20. What 2 things does the larygnopharynx open to?
    larynx and esophagus
  21. What is a flexible tube about 4-5 inches long?
  22. What are the 3 layers of the trachea?
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • adventitia
  23. What layer of the trachea is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, like the nasopharynx?
  24. What kind of cartilgae does the adventitia layer of the trachea have?
    c-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
  25. What are the 7 structures of the bronchial tree?
    • 1. trachea
    • 2. primary bronchi
    • 3. secondary bronchi
    • 4. tertiary bronchi
    • 5. bronchioles
    • 6. terminal bronchioles
    • 7. respiratory bronchioles > alveoli
  26. What is the beginning of the bronchial tree?
  27. What supplies each lung in the bronchial tree?
    primary bronchi
  28. How many primary bronchi are in each lung?
  29. What do the secondary bronchi supply?
    each lobe of lungs
  30. How many secondary bronchi in the right lung? In the left?
    • left: 2
    • right: 3
  31. What supplies the segments of the lungs?
    tertiary bronchi
  32. How long are the bronchioles?
    smaller than 1mm
  33. What on the bronchial tree is smaller than .5 mm?
    terminal bronchioles
  34. What is in the presence of the alveoli on the bronchiol tree?
    respiratory bronchioles
  35. What does the pseudostratified ciliated columnar tissue change to down the bronchial tree?
    simple cuboidal epithelium
  36. What does the c-shaped hyaline cartilage change to down the bronchial tree?
    smooth muscle
  37. Approximately how many alveoli are in the lungs?
    300 million
  38. What accounts for most of the lung's volume?
  39. What does the alveoli provide?
    surface area for gas exchange
  40. What 3 things can you see on an alveoli diagram?
    • smooth muscle
    • elastic fibers
    • capillaries
  41. What is the air-blood barrier?
    respiratory membrane
  42. What tissue is the alveolar and capillary walls?
    fused basal lamina
  43. What chemical reduces the surface tension of water in the lungs?
  44. When is surfactant made?
    few weeks before infant is born
  45. Why are premature babies not born with surfactant?
    because they did not make it before being born
  46. What types of cells are in the alveolar walls?
    type I and type II
  47. What are the Type I cells in the alveolar walls?
    epithelial cells
  48. What are the cells of the alveolar wall which secrete surfactant?
    Type II
  49. What type of cells of the alveolar wall permits gas exchange by simple diffusion?
    Type I epithelial cells
  50. Which membrane protects the external lung surface?
    visceral pleura
  51. What 2 things does the parietal pleura line?
    • thoracic cavity
    • superior diaphragm
  52. What is unique about the parietal and visceral pleura of the lungs?
    • they are the same membrane
    • seperated by serous fluid
  53. What are 4 types of pressure associated with breathing?
    • atmospheric pressure (Patm)
    • intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul)
    • intrapleural pressure (Pip)
    • transpulmonary pressure (Ppul-Pip)
  54. What is respiratory pressure always described in relation to?
    atmospheric pressure (Patm)
  55. What is atmospheric pressure (Patm)?
    pressure exerted by the air surrounding the body
  56. What is sea level?
    • 760 mmHG
    • 0atm
  57. What is air flowing into the lungs known as?
  58. What is expiration?
    air exiting the lungs
  59. What is the pressure within the alveoli called?
    intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul)
  60. Which pressure always equalizes itself with atmopsheric pressure?
    intrapulmonary pressure in the alveoli (Ppul)
  61. What is intrapleural pressure (Pip)?
    pressure within the pleural (lung) cavity
  62. What is intrapleural pressure (Pip) always less than?
    intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul) and atmospheric pressure (Patm)
  63. What kind of pressure changes daily?
    atmospheric pressure (Patm)
  64. What kind of pressure is always equalizing?
    intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul)
  65. What pressure is the difference in intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul) and intrapleural pressure (Pip)?
    transpulmonary pressure
  66. What 2 reasons is the intrapleural pressure always negative?
    • elasticity of lungs
    • surface tension of the alveoli
  67. What chemical overcomes surface tension?
  68. What is 1 opposing force the opposes lung collapse?
    elasticity of the chest wall pulling outward to enlarge lungs
  69. What pressure keeps airways open?
    transpulmonary pressure
  70. What is the presence of air in the intrapleural space?
  71. What equalizes intrapleural pressure with the intrapulmonary pressure?
  72. What does pneumothorax cause to the lungs?
    lung collapse
  73. What does pulmonary ventilation depend on?
    volume changes (space) leading to pressure changes
  74. What is the law for the relationship between volume and pressure?
    Boyle's law
  75. Why is pressure in larger volume (or bigger spaces) low?
    gas molecules have more room
  76. Why is pressure higher in smaller volume (small spaces)?
    less room for molecules to move
  77. What are 2 muscles used during inspiration?
    • diaphragm
    • internal intercostals
  78. What type of volume is increased when lungs are stretched during inspiration?
    intrapulmonary volume
  79. What is the goal of inspiration?
    increase thoracic cavity
  80. How does the process of expiration decrease volume of the thoracic cavity?
    • relaxing muscles used during inspiration
    • or contracting external intercostals and abdominal muscles
  81. What is the major source of resistance to airflow?
  82. What factor is resistance of the airway most determined by?
    diameter of airway tubes
  83. What happens to airway resistance as airway tube diameter decreases?
    resistance increases
  84. What happens tlo resistance as gas flow decreases?
    resistance increases
  85. Where is the greatest airway resistance?
    medium-sized bronchi
  86. What does histamine do to the airway?
  87. What disorder is an inflammatory response in the airways?
  88. What is the cause of asthma?
    hypersensitivity to airway irritants
  89. What 2 things during asthma greatly reduce the airflow?
    inflammation and constriction
  90. What is needed to overcome resistance when gas flow is decreased?
    • higher pressure
    • muscle contractions
  91. What happens to blood pH when the gas flow is reduced?
    • not enough oxygen
    • too much carbon dioxide
    • blood pH becoems acidic
  92. What 1 thing is used to treat asthma?
  93. What are 2 bronchodilators that are used to treat asthma?
    • epinephrine
    • steroids
  94. How do epinephrine and steroids treat asthma?
    • epinephrine - (fast) dilates bronchioles
    • steroids- (slow) reduce inflammation
  95. What is the ease with which lungs can be expanded known as?
    lung compliance
  96. What 2 factors determine lung compliance?
    • distensibility
    • surface tension
  97. What is distensibility?
    stretchability of the lung tissue
  98. What is surface tension of the alveoli kept low by?
  99. What kind of lung compliance do healthy individuals have?
    high lung compliance
  100. What type of lung tissue may reduce distensability and make lung compliance low?
    scarred, weak muscle tissue
  101. What 2 diseases reduces lung compliance?
    • tuberculosis
    • COPD
  102. What disease is caused by a bacterium and affects lung compliance and distensibility?
  103. What are 2 other names for COPD?
    • chronic bronchitis
    • emphysema
  104. What is the name of the law that states total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture?
    Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
  105. What of each gas is directly proportional to the percentage of the mixture it's in?
    • partial pressure
    • dalton's law
  106. What is the percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide at sea level?
    • O2 = 21%
    • CO2 = .04%
  107. What is the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide at sea level?
    • O2 = 159 mmHg
    • CO2 = .03 mmHg
  108. What is the percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli?
    • O2 = 13.7%
    • CO2 = 5.2%
  109. What is the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli?
    • O2 = 104 mmHg
    • CO2 = 40 mmHg
  110. What will happen when gas coems intno contact with a liquid?
    gas dissolves in liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
  111. What does gas depend on when dissolving into liquid?
  112. What is the most soluble gas?
  113. What is 1/20th as soluble as CO2?
  114. What is a practically insolublegas?
  115. What is the goal of inspiration?
    to increase volume of thoracic cavity
  116. What does gas flow need in order to overcome resistance by contracting muscles?
    higher pressures
  117. What 2 things would reduced gas flow cause?
    • not enough O2 in blood
    • too much CO2 in blood
  118. What would happen if gas flow was reduced and you couldn't get rid of CO2?
    • too much Co2 in blood
    • blood becomes too acidic
    • other organ systems deal with acidity
  119. Where is the most problematic location for lack of gas flow?
    medium sized bronchi
  120. Where does air meet the greatest resistance?
    medium sized bronchi
  121. What in the bronchial tree has the greatest amount of smooth muscle?
    medium sized bronchi
  122. What chemical constricts air passages?
  123. What is the technical term for laboured breathing?
  124. Why do empysemics have more acidic blood?
    less O2 and too much CO2 in the blood because they cant exhale well
  125. What are 2 contributing factors for COPD?
    • tobacco smoke and air pollution
    • "often environmental factors"
  126. Why do chronic issues arise from COPD?
    the connective tissue (amooth muscle) of the bronchioles and lungs does not regenerate, permanent scarring
  127. What is the symptom from chronic bronchitis, swelling, known as?
  128. What is the technical term for smoker's cough?
    chronic productive cough
  129. What are 3 symptoms of chronic bornchitis?
    • edema
    • \chronic productive cough
    • bronchiospasms
  130. What 3 things do symptoms of chronic bronchitis, or COPD, lead to?
    • air obstruction / trapping
    • dypsnea
    • frequent infections
  131. What is the steep gradient of partial pressure in the lungs that oxygen has?
    104 mmHg (alveoli) to 40 mmHg (blood)
  132. Why does oxygen diffuse rapidly between blood and respiratory zone?
    because of the steep gradient of partial pressure in respiratory zone and blood
  133. What process of ventilation is where carbon dioxide and oxygen diffuse from respiratory zone and blood?
    external respiration
  134. What kind of partial pressure gradient does CO2 have in comparison to O2 during external respiration?
    more gentle
  135. Why is the pressure gradient for CO2 more gentle than O2?
    CO2 is more soluble
  136. What is the pressure gradient between the alveoli and blood for CO2?
    • 40 mm HG in the alveoli
    • 45 mmHG in blood
  137. What causes changes in the diameter of the bronchioles and what kind of change?
    • changes in CO2 in the alveoli
    • the more Co2 the greater the diameter
  138. What causes changes in the diameter of the pulmonary arterioles and what kind of change?
    • changes in oxygen
    • low oxygen constricts pulmonary arterioles
  139. What 2 factors are synchronized due to changes in PO2 and PCO2?
    • pulmonary perfusion
    • alveolar ventilation
  140. How much oxygen is dissolved in plasma?
  141. Where is 98% of oxygen in the bloodstream?
    bound to heme of hemoglobin
  142. How many molecules of O2 can one hemoglobin bind to?
  143. What is the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli?
    • PO2 = 104 mmHg
    • PCO2 = 40 mmHg
  144. What is the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood leaving the tissues and entering the lungs (external respiration)?
    • PO2 = 40 mmHg
    • PCO2 = 45 mmHg
  145. What is the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood leaving the tissues and entering the capillaries?
    • PO2 = 100 mmHg
    • PCO2 = 40 mmHg
  146. What is the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in tissues (internal respiration)?
    • PO2 = less than 40 mmHg
    • PCO2 = greater than 45 mmHg
  147. What is the most important factor for loading of oxygen into the blood stream?
    partial pressure
  148. What does a greater pressure for oxygen allow?
    more oxygen to combine with hemoglobin
  149. What are 6 factors that increase unloading of oxygen at tissues (internal respiration)?
    • low Partial pressure of oxygen
    • low pH in the blood
    • high CO2 in the blood
    • high temperature of the body
    • increased BPG
    • fetal hemoglobin
  150. Why do we need to convert CO2 in the blood?
    to balance the pH by making it mroe acidic when too basic
  151. Does the CO2 of hemoglobin compete with oxygen?
  152. Where does 10% of CO2 dissolved in the blood?
  153. Where is 20% of CO2 in the blood?
    bound to globin of hemoglobin
  154. What is carbaminohemoglobin?
    CO2 binding with hemoglobin
  155. What happens to 70% of CO2 in the blood?
    temporarily converted to bicarbonate ions until it goes back to the lungs
  156. What does the carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system resist?
    blood pH changes
  157. What happens in the carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system if H+ concentrations in blood rise?
    excess H+ removed by combining with HCO3-
  158. What happens in the carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system when H+ concentrations in blood drop?
    carbonic acid disassociates to release H+
  159. How does the carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system form at the tissues?
    CO2 + H2O yield H2CO3 (Carbonic acid)
  160. What does carbonic acid disassociate to?
    • H+ + HCO3-
    • hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions
  161. What is alkalosis?
    • hyperventilation
    • decrease in CO2 making blood too basic
  162. What does hypoventilation cause?
    • acidosis
    • increase in CO2 makes blood acidic