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antibiotics can broken into 2 spectrums
broad and narrow
which bacteria is more dangerous, gram negative or gram positive?
- gram negative
- pts often get worse before they get better
- hard outer wall of gram negatives release toxins when ruptured
allergies and antibiotics
- allergic reactions are common
- repeated exposure sensitizes bodies defense mechanisms
- may cause mild rash or more severe reacations
Name the groups of antibiotics
Which antibiotic agent was the first one discovered?
- mulitiple variations avaliable now... G variations and V
- broader spectrum
- greater effectiveness with oral administration
side effects of using penicillins
- abdominal cramping and diarrhea
- monilia (candida) overgrowth may cause oral thrush as well as vaginal and perineal infection
- combats syphilis
- must be injected IM
- useful for respiratory infections
- prophylaxis against group B strep
- derivative of penicillin g
- can be taken orally
- respiratory infections
- cutaneous anthrax
- prevents rheumatic fever
if you are allergic to penicillin which antibiotic are you likely to be allergic to as well?
- developed from mold
- interferes with bacteria cell wall formation
- cross-sensitivity associated with penicillin (25% chance)
- can cause GI upset and skin rash
- as generations increase they become more effective against gram negative bacteria
which generation of cephalosporin is more effective against gram negative bacteria, first-generation or fourth-generation?
- broad spectrum
- usually given orally
- effective against repiratory and soft tissue infections
- treats rickettsia
- treats chlamydia
- treats mycoplasma infections
- treats lyme diseas and rocky mountain spotted fever
which antibiotic generic ends in "cycline"
Why should tetracycline agents not be given to pregnant women and children younger than 8?
Name the antibiotic given to a pt with a pencillin allergy
- narrow spectrum
- effective against gram postives
- used orally
- treats upper and lower respiratory infections
- usually used for community-acquired pneumonia
- generics end in -mycin
- given orally
- bacteria quickly develop resistance
- effective against respiratory, GI and STDs
- completely synthetic
- used after older antibiotics are ineffective
- long half-life (beware renal and liver pts)
- more effecitve as serum concentration increases
which generic antibiotic ends in -ofloxacin?
What is a major side effect of many antibiotics?
- hearing loss (ototoxicity)
- ususally happens with aminoglycosides
- those antibiotics reserved for serious infections by gram negatives
- synthetics that resemble a bacterial enzyme (PABA)
- taken orally
- must have adequate fluid intake may form crystals in kidney
- treats uti and haemophilus influenzae
- interferes with digoxin and phenytoin
- may petentiate warfarin and antidiabetic agents
antifungal adminstration techniques
- vaginal creams/suppositories
- swish and swallow
fungal infections can be life threatening for pts with....
impaired immune systems
why are viruses hard to kill?
- they develop an intimate host relationship
- hard to kill virus w/o harming the body
- hepatitis a, b, c
The progression of AIDS and drug-treatment decisions are based on which 2 mechanisms?
antivirals usually end in which suffix?