"Work against living things. Primary for bacteria. From soil microbes in competition with each other. Soil does not have many nutrients so the competition for them
Comes from the fungus Peneclium and produces penicillin. Was developed by Alexander Flemming. Good against Gram positive. Referred to as Beta-lactam. Only used on Gram positive can not be used on Gram negative because it will release Lipid A
"Small protein complexes that are excreted by bacteria to inhibit growth of other bacteria
Produces streptomyocin (is the bacteriocins). Are what give soil its smell.
Antibiotic resistance development
1. Increased/overuse of antibiotics. Along with the incomplete completion of taking the medication leads to resistance. 2. Over use in agriculture (feed to livestock animals: chickens. cattle. pigs). Veterinary Markets
"Two antibotics work together. The outcome is beneficial. The effect does not make either one work better. Same kill
There is an interaction between the antibiotics that actually increases the the efficacy. Efficacy is potentiated. Makes the drugs more effective.
How well antibiotics work.
Mechanisms of antibiotics
1. Inhibit folate synthesis (distrub metabolic pathways. sulfonamides). 2. Interfer with DNA synthesis (metronidazole. Flagyl). 3. Interfer with RNA synthesis (rifamicin). 4. Drugs which interfere with cell membrane function (polymyxin B) 5. Distrupt cell wall synthesis (penicillin. only works during active division)
Antibiotic for H. pylori
Metronidazole (Flagyl). Interferes with DNA synthesis
Very strong antibiotics that is not prescribed very often. People can get VRE. Vancomycin resistant enterococci.
MRSA. Methicillin (very strong antibiotic. similar to vancomycin) resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Infection aquired in the hospital. Community acquired infection.
Resistance mechanisms to antibiotics
1. Capsue 2. Spores. 3. Biofilm. 4. Extracellular enzymes. (proteases) 5. Coagulse 6. Pumps to remove antibiotics 7. Intracellular enzymes 8.Change target side 9. Ramp up production of antibiotic target 10. Alter metablic pathway (go around the effected enzyme). 11. Change in Cell Wall. Cell membrane permeability
As S. aureus grows. It produces coagulase which turns fibrinogen to fibrin. This fibrin makes a lattice/matrix protein (mesh) of protection around the bacteria. Difficult for antibiotics to reach it.
Intracellular Enzymes used to breakdown pencillin like antibiotics.
Counter Strategies for antibiotic resistance
1. Alter chemical structure of the antibiotics 2. Use of multiple drugs at once. 3. Patient education
Ater the site which effects the bacteria. Ex. amoxicillin. has added clavulanic acid. Clavulanic acid extends the life amoxicillin and helps to resist enzyme attacks.
On penicillin the beta-lactam ring will bind to the alanine on the amino acids that are making nag and nam. The microbe will produces beta-lactamases to break down the ring where it binds to the cell wall.
The area between a dividing cell wall. Where penicillin works attaching to alanine on the nag and nam
1. Tell pt. to take medication. 2. Make sure pt. follow directions for medication. Ex. take with food. the acid in the stomach will break down the food and not the antibiotic. dont take on empty stomach
Are used in to loosen the lipid layers on gram negative bacteria. EDTA
"When a certain concentration of a protein is made the riboswitch will tell the cell to stop making it. AEC (aminoethylcysteine) is identified in the cell as cysteine. This triggers the ribose switch to stop making cysteine
Minimum inhibitory concentration. Lowest concentration that will inhibit growth. The minimum concentration that is the losest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of a microoganism after overnight incubation.
A strip that has a varying concentration of an antibiotic. This strip is placed in the agar and the zone of inhibition is noted to help calculate MIC. Miniunum inhibitory concentration.
"Consists of both yeasts and molds. Grow best in warm
Opportunistic Systemic Mycosis
Fungal infections. Are primarily respiratory infections. Are treated with antifungals. Antifungals will interfer with our own cell wall permeability. makes it very dangerous for our cells.
Used in extreme fungal infections. Has many serious side effects that supported drugs are given. Has many CNS side effects.
Small blood vessel leaking under skin.
Reproduce sexual and asexually. When spores are released from the fungi and will germinate and produce a hyphea. Fungus will be haploid. Now this haploid fungus can fuse with another fungus and becomes diploid. Makes a zygote to make a new mushroom.
Used on the surface. Not to be ingested to.
To be ingested. Amphotericin. New grizefulvin use to be just topical now can be take orally.
Oral yeast infection. Use to be treated with crystal violet. no longer done because of presence of benzene ring.
Causes Ergot of Rye (infection called: ergotism). Causes seeds to turn black. Produces a neurotoxin is a derviation to LCD.
Used to treat migraines. Are also used to for inducing labor. Are vasoconstrictors. stimulating labor. or decreasing blood flow to brain.
Fly agaric. Is possibly the reason behind Santa Claus. Has hallucingin effect. Eaten by reindeer.
"(Lipid A). G- cell well
Neurotoxins.. Are produced inside mostly gram-positive bacteria as part of their growth and metabolism. They are secreted or released following lysis into the surrounding medium. Mostly gram positive
Types of exotoxins
Neurotoxins. Cytotoxins. Enterotoxins
Botulinum/Tetanus toxin (Clostridium botulinum. C. tetani)
Cornynebacterium diphterial. Dip. toxin
Vibrio cholera. Cholera toxins
Comes from Clostridium botulinum and produce subterminal spores. Seven different forms of botulism. Botulinum toxin: effects neurons (motor nerves). The toxin blocks the release Acteylcholine (neurotransmitters) at the motor end plate. This inhibits the contraction of the muscle fiber by not releasing ACh. Can be picked up from food poisoning (home canning).
Irreversible Flaccid Paralysis
The side effect of botulinum toxin. Inhibits contraction of muslce by blocking release of ACh.
Medical use of botulinum toxin
Botox (Cosmetic use). Inject into models armpits to decrease sweating (Medical use)Can be used for correcting ocular alignment.
Different types of Botulism
Wound Botulism: Specific to IV drug users. Dirty needles contains spores. Produces gases (anaerobes). Avian Botulism: Bird eats the maggots from a dead animal that had maggets. The maggets BIOACCUMLATE the botulism. Then they die from the large amount of toxins
Compete spastic paralysis. Will interfer with the production of glycine. Glycine induces relaxation and elongation of muscle fibers. Tetani: the complete contraction of all muscles. (lockjaw). Enters cell via endocytosis Caused by clostriudium tenani
When smaller animals eat some toxins. Then a larger animal eats more of them. This animal builds up more toxin.
Caused by Vibrio cholera (common in soil and water. gram negative). Found in countries with poor water sanitation. In the lumen of the intestine adenylcyclase helps with maintaining NaCl in gut. Cholera toxin effects adenylcyclase and causes salts to move into the lumen. Water follows the salt in the gut. this causes DIARRHEA! DIARRHEA! MASSIVE EXPLOSIVE DIARRHEA! Likes to bind to shells on seafood.
Produced by S. aureus. Binds to cell membrane of cells. Changes cell configuration and changes selective permeability. Makes large pores.
Destorys cell permeability
Causes typhoid fever. Produces cytotoxins. Produces lesions in the small intestines.
Destroys the cell glue. Enzyme that destroys Hyaluronic acid. The destruction of the tissue. Norman Cousins: Wrote a book about the Anatomy of an Illness.
Destorys red blood cells. Lyses cell. Alpha and Beta. Caused by streptococcus
Caused by Corynebacterium diptheria. Produces a cytotoxin. Colony arranged in dismay (overlying). Destroys the back of throat and you ingest more and more spread systematically. (gray leathery appearance in the back of throat). Very intense viruence. The toxin effects reducing compounds (NAD. EF-2. ADP-ribosyl-EF-2) that leads to the blocked protein synthesis.
Producesd by Streptococus pyogenes. Used to destroy collagen.
Types of immunity
Specific Resistance. Non-specific resistance
Does not matter on bacteria. Are mechanisms (chemical and physical means) that the body elminates bacteria or virus. Examples tears. eyelashes. eyebrows. mouth (chew). amalyases. stoamch acid. physcial digestion. bile salts. sweats. skin. stratching/itching
Types of Antibodies (specific immunity)
Natural (active and passive). and Artificial (active and passive)
Natural active immunity
Getting sick from a pathogen and body creates antibodies.
Natural passive immunity
Mother gives you at birth. Mothers immunity given at birth (short lived). Made by your mother and given to you.
Artificial active immunity
When you get the flu shot and your body begins to make antibodies against it.
Artificial pass immunity
Antibodies are made in another host and then harvested and given to you.
(Deals with Viral infection) Small molecular weight peptides used for disaster preparedness on a molecular level (cell signal). A cell after becoming an infected with a virus produces interferon (DNA->mRNA->interferon) and they are released extraceullarly. These interferons travel to neighboring cells. The neighboring cells will have interferon receptors and when the interferons bind and notifies cells that the viral infection is coming.
Pathway after interferon binding
1. Triggers cells to produce OLIGO A SYNTHETASE. This enzyme phosphorlates endoribonucleases. This nuclease will destroy viral RNA or interfere with the production of viral components. 2 Produces INACTIVE PROTEIN KINASE. Once phosphorylated (signaled by interferon) goes on to inactivate vrial protein synthesis factor. Phosphorylates initation factor on virus and stops working on the virus and viral reproduction stops.
Is contact between a human and an animal. Can be direct or indirect transmission. Direct ex. dog bites you. Indirect. flea bites dog who is infected and then bites you (vector)
Caused by Yersinia pestis. Is a gram negative rod that is short (pleomorphic. takes on many shapes) capusle former and nonmotile. Has many virulent factors. It can cause programmed cell death. Apotosis. This bacteria will go in and stimulate apotosis. Is a zoonotic disease with the primary vector is a flea. Some of the virulent factors are turned on in the pressence of fleas. Virence factors are located on the plamid (Yop) make an injectisome to inject effectors into your cell to cause aptotosis
Programed cell death. Some stress on cell. Anti-progam cell proteins (on mitochondria). Pro-PCD proteins will be in competion control when signaled. The Pro-PCD will grab the anti and pull them away from the mitochondria. This makes holes in the mitochondria and cytochrome C. is released interfering with energy production. Then the capases are released and cause DNA fragmentation.
Bubonic Plague vs Pneumonic Plague
Relates to the location of the diease. In the lymphnodes/lymphatic system becomes extreemly swollen (buboes). Becomes the Pneumonic Plague when it reaches your lungs and then can be spread by droplets. Can be treated with antibiotics if treated early (streptomyocin). (Treatment and leads to endo toxic shock from lipid A release).
Progession of plague
Takes about (1-3) bubonic. Lymphnodes become extremely swollen. Then by day 5 you have flu like symptoms. Can change the permeability of cells and causes blood to leak (buboes).
Cycles of Plague
Sylvatic cycle (in wild animals) Urban cycle (domesticated animals)
Mechanism of Plague
Is injected by a vector. Must stay in your for an ample amount of time to grow. With cause apoptosis of white blood cells. Additionally it can produce a clot degrading enzyme to inhibit clot formation and becoming trapped.
Virulent factors of Yersinia pestis
Pesticin I (kills completing bacteria). Coagulase. Fibrinolysin. Simultaneous clot formation and clot break down. LPS. Capsule
Treatment of Plague
Yersinia pestis is killed by Streptomyocin. Do not use a Beta lactam becasue its gram negative adn will additionally release more lipid A. 90% death rate without treatment.Early treatment is best
Bunyvariridae RNA virus. Normally comes excrement of mice rodents (inhalation). Deer mouse around here carries it. Kills within 24 hours of illness leads to a rapid pneumonia leads to drowning in own fluid. Can be killed by lysol.
Causes anthrax. Non-hemolyitc. Produces a capsule. Non-motile. Gel hydrolysis -. Catalse +. Also known as woolsorters dieases. Different types of anthrax: cutaneous. systemic. and gastrointestinal. Leaves necrotic lesions on skin. Usually inhale spores (heavy spores). Vaccine for anthrax. Virulent factors: edema toxn. lethal toxins. capsular polypeptides.
Dissolve clots and tissue
Spread by bit of rabbid animal by saliva of animal. Primary effect is in the CNS. Bullet shaped virus. Moves retrograde axonal transport. Will replicate in the site near the bite. Then moves to the peripheral neurvous system. Will move from muscle to and bind to the motor end plate and move in though an endosome. Incubation 5 days to 2 years. Effects cholenesterase. Is a vaccine against it.
Foot and mouth disease
Old term (Hoof and mouth) Piconovisus (aphthovirus). Zoonotic disease. Skin begins to become necrotic and fall off. Causes lesions. Is a bioterist agent by targeting animals. Oral fecal disease
Hand foot and mouth
Is due to the coxsackie virus is short lasting conditions most often affecting young children during the summer monthss.
Is a zoonotic disease. is a fungus
Genital warts. HPV. Very contagious. Very obvious little bumps easier to see on males. Several strains of HPV some can be short term or others are a life time. There is a vaccine for the virus. Women who have a longer exposure to HPV have a higher risk of cervical cancer. Acosalhedral shaped with spikes and very common among women. Passed through direct sexual contact. Women can just be carries and not show any symptoms.
Official name of genital wart
Type I is oral. Type II genital herpes. Can get herpes II from genital oral contact from someone with Herpes I. Antivirals against herpes (acyclovir (type I) valtrex) Are painful lesions on the genital. Is red and then begins to ooze out liquid with are actually virus particles. Pregnant women often have C-section to avoid spreading it to baby. Has been known to help the spread of HIV due to the piggyback on the herpes virus. Prevention do have sex during an outbreak in addition practice safe sex
"Known as the great imitator. Many signs and symptoms similar to other illnesses. Illness is on the rise. Is caused by a spirochete called TREPONEMA PALLIDUM. Produces sores and non-painful lesion. Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal
Syphalatic lession. Non-painful lesion. Main way to transfer to disease.
Stages of syphilis.
Primary stage. Appearance of single sore (chancre) will persist for about 1-1.5 months. Secondary Phase. Rash appears on the palms of the feet. Can be on other parts of the body. Late stage. Hidden stage leads to blindness. dementia. effects internal organs.
Another form syphilus lesion. Appears in late stage. Patchy non descript pigmentation on the body. Can be turn into lesions
Caused by Neissera gonorrhea. Grows in warm dark places but can grow in vagina. eyes. anus. Spread through direct sexual contact. Symptoms of gonorrhea not as prevalent in males. Can be infectious before a positive test. In men have difficulty in urination and discharge. Women can have discharge as well of various colors and painful urination. Women should be monitored because it can have effects on fertility. Can lead to PID in women. (pelvic inflammitory disease). Coffee bean shaped bacteria that can be treated with antibiotics.
C. trachomatis. many other types. Similar reproduction as viruses. Can be linked to artherosclerosis. Causes UTI. pneumonia. LGB. conjuctivitis. Intracellular parasites that reproduce like viruses. They are unable to make their own ATP (energy parasites). No peptidoglycan have a cell wall similar to gram negative bacteria.
Forms of chamydia
"Elementary bodies (EB). Are very small (0.3 to 0.4 um) infectious form
One of the fastest growing STD. Increases rate of etopic pregnancy (associated with miscarriages). Usually a discharge similar to gonorrhea. Treatment is possible with antibiotics. Most common reported infectious disease. Increase risk of PID