test 4

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Anonymous
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143057
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test 4
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2012-03-21 23:34:29
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Chapters 11
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Foundations of Genetics - DNA Biology and Technology
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  1. The passing of traits from a parent to offspring - traits are controlled by genes
    heredity
  2. Different forms a gene may have for a trait - small nose or big nose
    Allele
  3. The study of how alleles affect generations of offspring
    Genetics
  4. A heritable feature that varies among individuals, like flower color
    Character
  5. A variant of a character, like purple or white flowers
    Trait
  6. Varieties for which self-fertilization produced offspring all produced offspring all identical to the parent
    True-breeding (purebred)
  7. Offspring of two different true-breeding varieties
    Hybrids
  8. The cross-fertilization itself
    Genetic Cross
  9. The parental plants
    P generation
  10. the hybrid offspring of the P generation
    F1 generation
  11. offspring of the F1 generation plants - self fertilize or fertilize eachother
    F2 generation
  12. Genetic trait which will manifest when only one copy of the gene is present, overriding another inherited gene coding for a different version of the trait
    Dominant trait
  13. This type of trait is expressed in the heterozygous
    Dominant Trait
  14. Will only appear if an organism inherits a copy of the gene from both parents
    Recessive traits
  15. This trait is expressed in the heterozygous
    Recessive trait
  16. The genetic material on the chromosome
    Gene
  17. Genes that occur at the same place on homologous chromosomes
    Gene Locus
  18. Is the alternate form of a gene - each trait is controlled by two of these
    Allele
  19. Traits may be controlled by 2 alleles that are either the ____ or ______
    same or different
  20. An organism that has two identical allleles for a gene
    Homozygous
  21. An organism that has two different alleles for a gene
    Heterozygous
  22. Determines the organisms appearance; masks or hides the recessive gene - T
    Dominant Allele
  23. Has no noticable effect on the organisms appearance, masked by dominant alleles - t
    Recessive allele
  24. An organisms physical traits
    Phenotype
  25. The genetic makeup
    Genotype
  26. Different characteristics in organisms result from two genetic elements (alleles that seperate in gamete formation, such that each gamete gets only one of the two alleles
    Law of Segregation
  27. During gamete formation, gene pairs assort independently of one another
    Law of Independent Assortment
  28. Diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
    Punnett Square
  29. The cross between two parents that are true breeding varieties for one trait
    Monohybrid
  30. Determines if the dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous.
    Test cross
  31. Cross between a dominant phenotype and a recessive phenotype
    Test Cross
  32. When an autosome is any chromosome other than xy
    Autosomal recessive disease
  33. Heterozygous individual with no apparent abnormalities
    Carrier
  34. When an individual only needs to get the abnormal gene from one parent in order for them to inherit the disease
    Autosomal dominant disorder
  35. Offspring show traits between parents phnotype - blend
    Incomplete dominance
  36. when one gene effects many traits
    Pleiotropy
  37. Multiple Allele - share - 3 or more
    Codominance
  38. Example of Codominance -
    Blood Types
  39. During ____ both genes are expressed equally
    codominance
  40. Many genes acting together - one trait is governed by two or more alleles
    Polygenic Inheritance
  41. Example of Polygenic Inheritence
    Eye color
  42. Non-sex chromosomes - same number and type in each sex
    Autosomes
  43. How many autosomes do both men and women have
    22 pair
  44. Female xx and Male are xy
    Sex chromosomes
  45. How many sex chromosomes do both men and women have
    1 pair
  46. Any gene located on the x chromosome
    X linked gene
  47. What is the reason for the red and white snap dragons blending to create pink snap dragons?
    Incomplete dominance
  48. What is the reason for a person being color blind?
    Polygenic Inheritance
  49. 9-3-3-1
    Dihybrid Cross
  50. Mendels first set of offspring in the F1 group were:
    all purple flowers
  51. Mendels second set of offspring in the F2 group were:
    3/4 purple and 1/4 white flowers
  52. A=
    T
  53. G=
    C
  54. Building blocks of DNA
    Sugar, phosphate and a base
  55. An enzyme that unwinds the DNA strand
    Helicase
  56. An enzyme that assembles DNA nucleotides into polynucleotides using a preexisting strand of DNA as a tempalte - synthesized in a 5' - 3' direction
    DNA Polymerase
  57. An enzyme that seals any breaks in the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone
    DNA Ligase
  58. produced in the nucleus, during a process called transcription
    Messenger RNA
  59. Carries genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protien synthesis occurs
    Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  60. Type of RNA produced in the nucleus
    Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  61. Transfers amino acids present in the cytoplasm to the ribosomes where the amino acids are joined to form a protein in a process called translation
    Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  62. produced in the nucleolus of a nucleus
    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  63. Type of RNA that joins with protiens made in the cytoplasm to form the subunits of Ribosomes
    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  64. RNA Bases:
    Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Uracil
  65. DNA bases:
    Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine
  66. Helper to DNA that allows protien synthesis to occur accroding to the genetic information that DNA provides
    RNA
  67. Defines a mapping between a trinucleotide sequence that are called codones and amino acids
    The Genetic Code
  68. Nucleotide =
    a letter
  69. Codon or Amino Acid =
    3-letter word
  70. Polypeptide=
    Sentence
  71. There are ____ amino acids
    20
  72. Start codon is always
    AUG
  73. A change in the sequence of the bases
    Gene Mutation
  74. Environmental influences that cause mutations
    Mutagens
  75. A change in a single DNA nucleotide
    Point Mutations
  76. Caused by an extra or missing nucleotide in a DNA sequence
    Frameshift mutation
  77. Insertion or deletion of a base - changes every base thereafter
    Base Substitution
  78. Most mutations come about through this type of cells and they are not passed on
    Somatic cells
  79. Disease can be passed on throught this type of cell
    Gomeline Cells
  80. Step that DNA is copied onto RNA
    Transcription
  81. Step that protiens are made during
    Translation
  82. Adenine and Guanine are
    Purines with a double ring
  83. Thymine and Cytosine are
    Pyrimidines with a single ring

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