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The basics of the Pentateuch (books, themes, author, what Pentateuch means)
- It consists of the first five OT books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
- The name comes from the Greek, meaning "five scrolls.": Jews call it Torah, which is often rendered "Law," but is better understood as "instruction ."
- Themes: dominant theme is Promise
- Author: most commonly thought to be Moses
What is most emphasized in the plotline of the Pentateuch in terms of space allocated to it
This shows the author’s principal interest—the formation and constitution of the nation
The theological significance of the Fall (in Genesis 3)—i.e., what does it tell us about God and His ways
this even created the separation between God and man. Brought sin into the world and God punished them by promising child birthing to be painful and for man to have to work hard all the days of his life. The creation sin is the reason for salvation
The theological significance of the Flood story (in Genesis 6-9)
Due to the ignorance of the people who did not listen to God, He chose to wipe out the people in order to start the line of history over through Noah and his family. Thus, a new God-fearing generation was formed.
The main differences between the Primeval History (Gen 1-11) and Patriarchal History (Gen 12-50)
- primeval history: explains how the world we live in came to be, along with the origin of evil and the nations.
- Patriarchal history: narratives dealing with the patriarchs of Israel, and they overcome the curses of primeval history
The identity of the Patriarchs
Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob
Identity of Abraham’s test of faith in Genesis 22
- Divine Guidence, god guides abraham and intervenes repeatedly for him
- Abraham was willing to kill his own son because his faith in God was so great
What Joseph’s trials and struggles say about the “Providence” of God in Genesis 50
God's providence is divine. Joseph says his struggles were something God meant for good
The significance of the Exodus
- depicts the great redemptive act of God—the birth of a nation from the womb of Egypt.
- provides the basis of Israel’s self-identity
- supplies the setting of God’s supreme self-revelation—showing how He interacts with His people
The major events in the book of Exodus
- opression, call of Moses
- 10 plagues, passover
- the defeat of pharaoh’s army
- God provides food and water while people complain
- covenant with israel
- tabernacle & golden calf
The significance of the Passover
- One life is taken to spare another. Jesus transforms the significance from a memorial of the exodus to one of His substitutionary death.
The organization of the book of Deuteronomy
- can be organized 2 ways
- as 3 sermons by Moses, with a final "death story" detailing how Moses "put his house in order"
- As a Suzerain-vassal treaty, with common elements with this ancient document. Moses perhaps used this form to give the people insight on what the covenant relationship should be like. (*sorry but i have no idea what this means)
The focus of the book of Joshua
Yahweh's gift of the land in fulfillment of the promises
“The” evil in the book of Judges
The positive tone of the book of Ruth in the period of the Judges
- Cast against the backdrop of the dark days of the judges, the book of Ruth presents a bright spot in an otherwise dismal period (see place in canon).
- When it seemed as if Israel had reached rock bottom Canaanization, we see not all had forsaken YHWH.
The purpose of the book of Ruth
to show God working out His purposes even when it seems as if He is hidden
The person who is the focus of the books of Samuel and the historical period focused on in the book
David is the focus and the historical period is the transistion from the period of Judges to that of the United Monarchy
The most significant success/failure of Solomon in his reign
- Solomon’s wisdom
- expansion of the kingdom, and building of the temple Solomon’s many wives who turned his heart from the Lord to idolatry and his failed domestic policy
The event that led to the division of the kingdom of Israel
Rehoboam’s failure when he continues his father Solomon’s oppressive policies
What historical period of the Jewish people the book of Ezra describes
Ezra led the Jewish exiles returning in 458 BC (a dangerous journey), some 80 years after the Persians first allowed the Jews to return.
The roles Nehemiah played in the history of Israel
Nehemiah led the people despite conspiracies against himself and even possible physical attacks.
The hiddenness of God in Esther
The author as a good Jew would have assumed God’s involvement, but he shows that God’s hand is not always obvious to those experiencing an event
How Hebrew poetry differs from modern poetry
- One will notice that in Hebrew poetry, there is an absence of rhyme and irregularity of meter.
- Stress is put on figurative language, literary symmetry, and a correspondence not in sound but ideas.
- Other characteristics include; terse language, unusual vocabulary/word order, and repetitions.
The author of Proverbs
Many proverbs are attributable to Solomon, though there are others
The Hebrew prophets as “forthtellers” not “foretellers"
The prophet’s words did not primarily involve prediction. Instead, they were driven by immediate concerns. Future predictions are few.
be able to match the following major events to the books in which they occur--the call of Abraham, the death of Moses, the wandering in the Sinai wilderness, the giving of laws concerning five types of sacrifices, the building of the Tabernacle, the instructions on Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement), the story of Samson, the battle of Jericho, the selling of Joseph into slavery in Egypt, and the two censuses of the people.
- Genesis: Call of Abraham, Selling of Joseph into slavery
- Exodus: Death of Moses, Wandering in the wilderness, the Giving of the laws, construction of the tabernacle
- Leviticus: Yom Kipper (day of atonement)
- Numbers: 2 Censuses of the people
- Joshua: The battle of Jericho
- Judges: the story of Sampson
Be able to list two theological affirmations of Genesis 1, as given by your professor
- (Here's 4!)
- God is one and is solely responsible for creation.
- God created ex nihilo. Creation is not eternal or divine.
- God created to glorify Himself.
- God created humanity to be central in His purposes in glorifying Himself.
Be able to give two important implications of humans being created in the image of God
- Since humans are all image-bearers, all humans inherit equal and special nobility in the sight of God.
- Since humanity was created male and female, any view that blurs the distinction is to be repudiated.
- Since all humans serve as God’s representatives, any act directed at another person is an act directed at God
- Since the entire human race as united in descent from Adam, the guilt of Adam’s sin falls on all.
Be able in a few sentences, to explain briefly the differences between modern and Hebrew history
- •Modern history strives for objectivity, chronological precision, the 5 Ws, and comprehensiveness. Also, modern history holds to natural or secular causation.
- •Hebrew history is interpreted history and stresses selection and ordering of events. It does not strive for objectivity and sees divine causation.
- Hebrew history is not written to further a political cause or satisfy historical content, it is to communicate things about God.
- It is narritive history which is theologically structered (instead of chronologically etc) and is character-driven
- It is contextual history meant to be read in its culture and context to clearly understand the message
- It is inspired by God
Imagine you are encountering a person who is asking you why God would brutally destroy the Canaanites. How would you answer him or her? Be able to list and describe at least two considerations given in class.
- God is God. We should be careful about questioning His actions. Also, God’s conquering Canaan is a part of the whole revelatory context of God’s redemption.
- The command to wipe out the Canaanites had strict limits It is the exception rather than the rule. The annihilation was specific in time, intent, and geography.
- The Canaanites were a wicked people. And the goal was to protect Israel against their paganism
- And if there is any Canaanite that professes faith in Yahweh, they are gloriously saved
Be able to define briefly the concept of wisdom from an Old Testament perspective
- Hebrew wisdom in its deepest sense was an approach to life and a way of understanding the world.
- For the Hebrew, proper understanding of the world grew out of the "fear of Yahweh." Fear=understanding arising when you understand who you are in relation to who God is.
Based on the history told in Joshua-Esther, provide the approximate dates and a one sentence description of the following periods: conquest, period of the Judges, United Monarchy, divided monarchy, Jewish exile in Babylon, and return from exile.
- Conquest: israelites had to conquest the promised land from the Caananites
- Judges: 14th century BC to 1050 BC, Israel’s scattered, directionless tribes find leaders and deliverance in "judges."
- United Monarchy: trace rise of David to prominence
- Divided Monarchy: Continuing Solomon's opressive policies caused split in North Israel and South Israel
- Jewish Exile in Babylon: 586 BC Nebuchadnezzar sends the Jews into exile
- Jewish Return from Exile: 538 BC Jews allowed to return and rebuild their temple and alter