scientific investigation of mental processes (thoughts & feelings) and behaviour (actions)
involves testing hypothesis
not observable, can be inferred & tested, behaviour is observable and can be tested
To understand ones thoughts, feelings & actions- Explore:
i)biology ii) cultural context iii) psychological experience
determines capacity & limits your experiences
group of values, beliefs & norms- gives meaning to behaviour
influenced by biology & cultural context- interprt own experiences
focus on biological studies & factors that influence psychological experiences
Biology- mircro level
Culture- macro level
Psychologists & psychiatrists not the same. Why?
psychiatrits prescribe medication
Specialty areas within psychology
Historical roots of psychology
stem from philosophy
reasoning and arguning
Questions psychologists typically adress:
1- do people make free choices or are their actions determined by forces outside tehir control?
(Free will vs determainism)
2- to what extent do psychological processes reflect biological or environmental influences?
(Nature vs Nurture debate)
3- to what extent does knowledge about the world come from logic & reasoning or from an observed experience?
(rationalism vs emircism)
4- to what extent are people guided by their knowledge or by their feelings?
(reason vs emotion)
Questions psychologists typically adress cont:
5- to what extent is human psychology similar to the psycology of animals?
(continuity vs discontinuity with other animals)
6- to what extent are humans fundamentally self-interested or orientated towards relating to & helping people ?
(individualism vs collectivism)
7- to what extent are people concious of their mind and causes of behaviour?
(concious vs unconcious)
8- to what extent can we understand psychological events without understanding biological functioning?
Founder of psychology
The mass nerve fibres connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebrum
Region of the brain located above the lateral fissure and in front of the central sulcus; involved in motor control and cognitive activities.
Region of the brain behind the frontal lobe and above the lateral fissure; contains somatosensory cortex.
Rearmost region of the brain; contains primary visual cortex
Region of the brain found below the lateral fissure.
The brain structure that regulates motivated behaviour (such as eating and drinking) and homeostasis
Constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body
The region of the brain that regulates higher cognitive and emotional functions
The outer surface of the cerebrum
The two halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum
The region of the brain that regulates emotional behaviour, basic motivational urges and memory, as well as major physiological functions.
The region of the brain stem that connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain to one another
The region of the bran stem that alerts the cerebral cortex to incoming sensory signals and is responsible for maintaining consciousness and awakening from sleep
The brain structure that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex
The brain structure that regulates the body’s basic life processes
The region of the brain stem that regulates breathing, waking and heartbeat
The region of the brain attached to the brain stem that controls motor coordination, posture and balance and the ability to learn control of body movements
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s involuntary motor responses
The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that deals with emergency responses and the mobilisation of energy
The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that monitors the routine operation of the body’s internal functions and conserves and restores body energy
Somatic Nervous System
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the skeletal muscles and skin
Central Nervous System
The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
The part of the nervous system composed of the spinal and cranial nerves that connect the body’s sensory receptors to the CNS and the CNS to the muscles and glands.
The nervous system
States and Levels of conciousness
the process of paying attention to and reflecting upon one’s thoughts andfeelings
Wundt’s student, Edward Titchener
credited as the founder of structuralism because:
of his singular emphasis onexperimentation to uncover the basic elements of consciousness;
rigorousexperimentation allows researchers to verify the output of introspection
is a school of thought that argues that human consciousness can be reduced tosmaller parts or elements, and that there are identifiable structures in thebrain responsible for those elements or units of consciousness
is a school of thought that emerged as a reaction to structuralism, and arguesthat consciousness cannot be reduced to smaller parts because the partsthemselves have not function on their own
Structuralism vs Functionalism
structuralism helps identify what structures in the brain areresponsible for different parts of the human experience, and functionalismhelps identify the purpose of different parts of the human experience
5 theoretical perspectives commonly used in psychology:
(iv) cognitive psychology
(v) evolutionary psychology
each has strengths and weaknesses and so arebest used in conjunction with one another
argues that people’s actions are influenced by their thoughts, feelings and wishes, but that because these may conflict with one another, they are often outside our conscious awareness of them
asserts that unconscious thoughts, feelings and wishes can be uncoveredusing psychoanalysis because they are inferable from verbalised thoughts andfeelings, and observable behaviours
the process of paying attention to and reflecting upon one's thoughts and feelings
Wundt's students- founded structurlism
argues that human conciousness canbe reduced to smaller parts or elements, and that are identifiable structures in the brian responsible for those elements or units of conciousness.
emerged as a reaction to structulism and argues that conciousness canotbe reduced to smaller parts themselves have not function on their own.
Structuralism vs functionalism
Structuralism- helps identify what structures in the brian are responsible for different parts of the human experience
Functionalism- helps identify the purpose of different parts of the human experience