1015HSV

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sarah.alice.batt
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143071
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1015HSV
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2012-03-24 21:00:22
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Human Behaviour
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Human Behaviour Mid Semester Exam
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  1. Psychology
    scientific investigation of mental processes (thoughts & feelings) and behaviour (actions)
  2. Scientific Inquiry
    involves testing hypothesis
  3. Mental Processes
    not observable, can be inferred & tested, behaviour is observable and can be tested
  4. To understand ones thoughts, feelings & actions- Explore:
    i)biology ii) cultural context iii) psychological experience
  5. Biology
    determines capacity & limits your experiences
  6. Cultural Context
    group of values, beliefs & norms- gives meaning to behaviour
  7. Psychological Experience
    influenced by biology & cultural context- interprt own experiences
  8. Psychologists
    focus on biological studies & factors that influence psychological experiences
  9. Psychological experience
    • Biology- mircro level
    • Culture- macro level
  10. Psychologists & psychiatrists not the same. Why?
    psychiatrits prescribe medication
  11. Specialty areas within psychology
    • bio
    • conginitive
    • councelling
    • developmental
    • clinical
    • educational
    • forensic
    • health
    • industrial
    • personality
    • social
    • sports
  12. Historical roots of psychology
    • stem from philosophy
    • reasoning and arguning
  13. Questions psychologists typically adress:
    • 1- do people make free choices or are their actions determined by forces outside tehir control?
    • (Free will vs determainism)

    • 2- to what extent do psychological processes reflect biological or environmental influences?
    • (Nature vs Nurture debate)

    • 3- to what extent does knowledge about the world come from logic & reasoning or from an observed experience?
    • (rationalism vs emircism)

    • 4- to what extent are people guided by their knowledge or by their feelings?
    • (reason vs emotion)
  14. Questions psychologists typically adress cont:
    • 5- to what extent is human psychology similar to the psycology of animals?
    • (continuity vs discontinuity with other animals)

    • 6- to what extent are humans fundamentally self-interested or orientated towards relating to & helping people ?
    • (individualism vs collectivism)

    • 7- to what extent are people concious of their mind and causes of behaviour?
    • (concious vs unconcious)

    • 8- to what extent can we understand psychological events without understanding biological functioning?
    • (mind/body problem?)
  15. William Wundt
    Founder of psychology
  16. Corpus Callosum
    The mass nerve fibres connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebrum
  17. Frontal Lobe
    Region of the brain located above the lateral fissure and in front of the central sulcus; involved in motor control and cognitive activities.
  18. Parietal Lobe
    Region of the brain behind the frontal lobe and above the lateral fissure; contains somatosensory cortex.
  19. Occipital Lobe
    Rearmost region of the brain; contains primary visual cortex
  20. Temporal Lobe
    Region of the brain found below the lateral fissure.
  21. Hypothalamus
    The brain structure that regulates motivated behaviour (such as eating and drinking) and homeostasis
  22. Homeostasis
    Constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body
  23. Cerebrum
    The region of the brain that regulates higher cognitive and emotional functions
  24. Cerebral Cortex
    The outer surface of the cerebrum
  25. Cerebral Hemispheres
    The two halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum
  26. Limbic System
    The region of the brain that regulates emotional behaviour, basic motivational urges and memory, as well as major physiological functions.
  27. Pons
    The region of the brain stem that connects the spinal cord with the brain and links parts of the brain to one another
  28. Reticular Formation
    The region of the bran stem that alerts the cerebral cortex to incoming sensory signals and is responsible for maintaining consciousness and awakening from sleep
  29. Thalamus
    The brain structure that relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex
  30. Brain Stem
    The brain structure that regulates the body’s basic life processes
  31. Medulla
    The region of the brain stem that regulates breathing, waking and heartbeat
  32. Cerebellum
    The region of the brain attached to the brain stem that controls motor coordination, posture and balance and the ability to learn control of body movements
  33. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
    The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s involuntary motor responses
  34. Sympathetic Division
    The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that deals with emergency responses and the mobilisation of energy
  35. Parasympathetic Division
    The subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that monitors the routine operation of the body’s internal functions and conserves and restores body energy
  36. Somatic Nervous System
    The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the skeletal muscles and skin
  37. Central Nervous System
    The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  38. Peripheral Nervous System
    The part of the nervous system composed of the spinal and cranial nerves that connect the body’s sensory receptors to the CNS and the CNS to the muscles and glands.
  39. The nervous system
  40. The Forebrain
  41. States and Levels of conciousness
  42. The Eye
  43. Introspection
    the process of paying attention to and reflecting upon one’s thoughts andfeelings
  44. Wundt’s student, Edward Titchener
    • credited as the founder of structuralism because:
    • of his singular emphasis onexperimentation to uncover the basic elements of consciousness;
    • rigorousexperimentation allows researchers to verify the output of introspection
  45. Structuralism
    is a school of thought that argues that human consciousness can be reduced tosmaller parts or elements, and that there are identifiable structures in thebrain responsible for those elements or units of consciousness
  46. Functionalism
    is a school of thought that emerged as a reaction to structuralism, and arguesthat consciousness cannot be reduced to smaller parts because the partsthemselves have not function on their own
  47. Structuralism vs Functionalism
    structuralism helps identify what structures in the brain areresponsible for different parts of the human experience, and functionalismhelps identify the purpose of different parts of the human experience
  48. 5 theoretical perspectives commonly used in psychology:
    • (i)psychodynamics
    • (ii) behaviourism
    • (iii) humanism
    • (iv) cognitive psychology
    • (v) evolutionary psychology
    • each has strengths and weaknesses and so arebest used in conjunction with one another
  49. Psychodynamic perspective
    argues that people’s actions are influenced by their thoughts, feelings and wishes, but that because these may conflict with one another, they are often outside our conscious awareness of them
  50. Psychodynamic theory
    asserts that unconscious thoughts, feelings and wishes can be uncoveredusing psychoanalysis because they are inferable from verbalised thoughts andfeelings, and observable behaviours
  51. Introspection
    the process of paying attention to and reflecting upon one's thoughts and feelings
  52. Edward Titchener
    Wundt's students- founded structurlism
  53. Structuralism
    argues that human conciousness canbe reduced to smaller parts or elements, and that are identifiable structures in the brian responsible for those elements or units of conciousness.
  54. Fucntionalism
    emerged as a reaction to structulism and argues that conciousness canotbe reduced to smaller parts themselves have not function on their own.
  55. Structuralism vs functionalism
    Structuralism- helps identify what structures in the brian are responsible for different parts of the human experience

    Functionalism- helps identify the purpose of different parts of the human experience

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