A&P 7

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A&P 7
2012-03-23 22:33:42

the tissue level of organization
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  1. what are the 4 tissue types found in the human body
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscular
    • nervous
  2. define LUMEN
    • inestinal tract has one
    • describing the part that light would shine through or the "empty space"
    • there is an epithelium covering this lumen, because the lumen is part of the outside (non-body) world
  3. describe basice structural features for epithelial tissue
    • 1 free surface (apical surface)
    • 1 surface attached to basement membrane (basal lamina & reticular lamina)
    • underlying connective tissue
    • locations: 1. barriers to keep outside out & inside in, 2. barriers that secrete substances, & 3. barriers for protection
  4. describe APICAL SURFACE
    top that faces the outside world
  5. describe BASAL SURFACE
    base, basement that rests on & is attached to basement membrane
    consists of 2 thn layers, each called a lamia (basal & reticular lamina)
  7. describe BASAL LAMINA
    nearest of the epithelial cells
  8. describe RETICULAR LAMINA
    bit deeper than basal lamina
  9. describe classification of EPITHELIA ARRANGEMENT
    • SIMPLE- cells are a single layer, all in contact w/ basement membrane
    • PSUEDOSTRATIFIED- cells appear to have layers, every one is in contact w/ basement membrane
    • STRATIFIED- cells have layers, only lowest layer is in contact w/ basement membrane
  10. describe classification of EPITHELIA SHAPE
    • SQUAMOUS- cells are flat & shaped like fish scales, are wider than are tall
    • CUBOIDAL- cells are as wide as they are tall, like little rice cubes
    • COLUMNAR- cells like a column, taller than they are wide
  11. describe naming EPITHELIA arrangement & shape
    • 3 arrangements X 3 shapes= 9 combos
    • 2 of these not used, but add transitional (cells thta change shape= 8 combos)
    • if different shapes present, ALWAYS NAMED BY SHAPE OF CELLS IN APICAL (outermost) LAYER
  12. describe SIMPLE SQUAMOUS epithelia
    • single layer of thin & flat cells
    • used where substances need to diffuse across the epithelium, or where filtration is taking place
    • locations: lining of heart, blood, & lymph vessels- air sacs of lungs- kidney filtration- eardrum- one layer of serous membranes
  13. describe SIMPLE CUBOIDAL epithelia
    • single layer of cube-shaped cells
    • often found where secretion or absorption is taking place, as in glandular tissue
    • locations: surface of ovaries, eye (anterior surface of lens & pigmented epithelium), kidney tubules, & many glands
  14. describe SIMPLE COLUMNAR epithelia
    • single layer of column-like cells
    • w/ or w/out cilia
    • w/ or w/out microvilli (increase surface area)
    • w/ or w/out mucus (goblet cells)
    • 2 subtypes: 1. ciliated (cilia on apical surface) moves mucus & substances trapped in mucus by wave-like motion of cilia (locations: respiratory tract, uterine tubes/uterus, efferent ducts testes, some paranasal sinuses, & canal of spinal cord & ventricles of brain 2. nonciliated- used ofr secretion or absorption (locations: GI tract, glandular ducts, & gallbladder)
  15. describe PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR epithelia
    • it is unusual
    • appears to have layers, it doesn't
    • all cells attached to basement membrane
    • "pseudo"- lying, false
    • locations: ciliated- upper respiratory airways, non-ciliated- glands, epididymis& urethra
  16. define GOBLET CELLS
    mucus producing cells
  17. define mucociliary escalator
    mucus cells secrete mucus to trap dust & invaders, so they can be moved up to the throat
  18. describe STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS epithelia
    • most common type of epithelium in human body
    • apical surface is made up of squamous (flat) cells
    • other layers have diff shapes, but named based on apical layer
    • location: skin & mucous membranes
  19. describe STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL epithelia
    • apical surface is made up of cube-shaped cells
    • 2 or more layers
    • location: sweat gland ducts, esophageal gland ducts, & part of male urethra
    • involved in secretion
  20. describe STRATIFIED COLUMNAR epithelia
    • apical surface is made up of tall cells (taller than they are wide)
    • 2 or more layers
    • locations: part of (lining of) urethra, excretory ducts of some glands, part of anal mucous membranes, & part of conjunctiva in eye
  21. describe TRANSITIONAL epithelia
    • shape of cells changes depending on state of stretch
    • several layers
    • location: bladder & nearby urethra/ ureters
    • full bladder: squamous cells
    • empty bladder: cuboidal cells
  22. compare and contrast ENDOCRINE & EXOCRINE GLANDS
    • endocrine glands secrete substances into extracellular fluid then blood (hormones)
    • exocrine glands secrete substances outside of body (duct)
    • both generally lined w/ (simple or stratified) cuboidal epithelium
  23. define SECRETION
    production of substances that are released outside the body (exocrine glands) or w/in the body (endocrine glands)
  24. define HORMONES
    substances that alter the metabolism or function of body cells
  25. how are glands named?
    glands named based on: branching pattern of duct(purple)- unbranched=simple or branched=compound & shape of secretory portion(pink)- tube-like=tubular, grape-like=acinar, or both=tubuloacinar
  26. what are the 8 types of epithelial gland?
    • simple tubular
    • simple branched tubular
    • simple coiled tubular
    • simple acinar
    • simple branched acinar
    • compound tubular
    • compound acinar
    • compound tubuloacinar
    • sweat
    • most common: eccrine "watery"/ mucin mixes w/ water to form mucus
    • steps in formation of secretory product: 1.DNA instructions transcribed to mRNA in nucleus, 2.synthesized in RER, 3.packaged in Golgi complex, 4. formed into secretory vesicle, 5.released - exocytosis
    • doesn't damage cell
    • they're everywhere, except for where you have hair
    • part of milk production/ prostate gland
    • steps in formation of secretory product: 1.DNA instructions transcribed to mRNA in nucleus, 2.synthesized in RER, 3.packaged in Golgi complex, 4.formed into vesicle, 5.end of cell breaks off & dissolves
    • sebaceous glands of the hair follicles/ glands of the eyelids
    • steps in formation of secretory product: 1.DNA instructions transcribed to mRNA in nucleus, 2.synthesized in RER, 3.packaged in Golgi complex, 4a. cell dies, releasing product, 4b.lost cell replaced by division of stem cells
    • destroys the cell
  30. describe CONNECTIVE TISSUE
    • connects epithelium to the rest of the body
    • it's made up of 3 parts: ground substance (extracellular matrix), fibers (collagen, elastic, & reticular fibers), & cells
  31. describe GROUND SUBSTANCE
    • aka extracellular matrix
    • several important proteins found here: fibronectin(adhesion), laminin(cell differentiation), & proteoglycans(class of proteins that contain lots of sugar, for ex-mucus is mostly proteoglycan)
    • integrin links these to cell surface
    • collagen fibers link these to connective tissue
  32. describe the 3 types of FIBERS
    • 1. collagen fibers- made up of collagen(naturally), comes in several diff types that vary between tissues(called type I collagen....all the way up to type XXIX collagen)
    • it's a triple helix, which gives it strength along the fiber
    • 2. elastic fibers- made up of elastin, are abundant in tissues that need to stretch & then snap back into their previous shape, like blood vessels
    • 3. reticular fibers- made up of type III collagen
    • originally named separately because their silve staining properties, but later proved that reticular fibers are a type of collagen fiber
  33. describe the 6 diff CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS
    • 1. fibroblasts- most numerous cell, secrete fibrous components & ground substance, they lay down protein fibers (collagen, elastin, reticular fibers)
    • 2. adipocytes- (big yellow cells) fat cells, store triglycerides, insulation, energy storage
    • 3. mast cells- (all over the body) near blood vessels, important in inflammation; produce histamine
    • 4. white blood cells- (part of immune system) migrate to sites of damage (neutrophils, eosinophils)
    • 5. macrophages- "big eaters": swallow & destroy invaders or debris, fixed or wandering
    • 6. plasma cells- formed from white blood cells (B lymphocytes), secrete special proteins called antibodies that help attack invaders
  34. define DEFENSIVE CELLS
    • cells that defend the body against invaders
    • they patrol the connective tissues & attack any enemies they find there
    • cells in this group include: mast cells, white blood cells, macrophages, & plasma cells
    • in the embryo, rapidly dividing cells are gathering together into organs and tissues, so they must be able to move freely
    • in a mature human, by contrast, the job of connective tissue is to hold things in place, & it generally does not want to allow movement of cells
  36. define & describe MESENCHYME (embryonic connective tissue)
    • almost all of the embryo is made up of this
    • it's almost fluid in consistency and the cells are widely spaced
  37. define & describe MUCOUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE (aka wharton's jelly)
    jelly-like connective tissue in the umbilical cord of the embryo, connecting the mother & child
  38. what are the 2 types of EMBRYONIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE?
    • 1. mesenchyme
    • 2. mucous connective tissue (wharton's jelly)
  39. what are the 5 types of MATURE CONNECTIVE TISSUE?
    • 1. loose connective tissue
    • 2. dense connective tissue
    • 3. cartilage
    • 4. bone
    • 5. liquid
  40. what are the 3 subcategories of LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE (mature connective tissue)?
    • subcategories include:
    • areolar connective tissue; adipose tissue; and reticular connective tissue
  41. describe AREOLAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE (mature/ loose connective tissue)
    • most common connective tissue type
    • found in a wide variety of locations (in layer supporting the skin & mucous membranes, & supporting surrounding organs)
    • consists of a mixture of fiber types (collagen, elastin, & reticular fibers) & cell types (fibroblasts & defense cells)
  42. describe ADIPOSE TISSUE (mature/ loose connective tissue)
    • found under the skin, around heart & kidneys, in yellow bone marrow, & forming a cushion in joints & surround the eye socket
    • consists of cells calle adipocytes (have huge fat droplet surrounded by a rim of cytoplasm & nucleus)
  43. describe RETICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE (mature/ loose connective tissue)
    • reticular fibers in a loose meshwork w/ reticular cells
    • forms the stroma (supporting framework) of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, & red bone marrow (where blood cells are formed)
    • also forms reticular lamina of the basement membrane
  44. what are the 3 subcategories of DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE (mature connective tissue?
    subcategories include: dense regular; dense irregular; & elastic
  45. describe DENSE REGULAR (mature/ dense connective tissue)
    • appears grossly as a white, shiny sheet
    • made up of collagen fibers in regular bundels w/ a few fibroblasts
    • it's found in tendons(which connects muscle to bone); in ligaments (connects bone to bone); & sheetlike tendons called aponeuroses
    • dense structure w/ lack of blood supply, which makes tissues extremely slow to heal after injury
  46. describe DENSE IRREGULAR (mature/ dense connective tissue)
    • has fibroblasts & collagen fibers, but the collagen fibers run in many diff directions- this gives the strength in all directions
    • found in the fasciae, which form sheets b/n muscles; in the deeper part of the skin; in the "peri-" tissues that surround bone, cartilage & the heart
  47. describe ELASTIC (mature/ dense connective tissue)
    • made up of many oriented elastic fibers (like little bungee cords) & a few scattered fibroblasts
    • found in the lungs, trachea, bronchial tubes, & vocal cords; in walls of arteries; in ligaments b/n vertebrae; & in suspensory ligaments of the penis
  48. what are the 3 types of CARTILAGE (mature connective tissue/ cartilage)?
    • 1. hyaline
    • 2. fibrocartilage
    • 3. elastic cartilage
    • cartilage is harder and less flexible than dense connective tissues
  49. define CHONDROCYTE
    • living part of hyaline, fibrocartilage, & elastic cartilage
    • cell that looks like a fried egg through the microscope
  50. describe HYALINE (mature connective tissue/ cartilage)
    • most abundant type of cartilage
    • shiny, bluish-white substance
    • consists of fine collagen fibers & many chondrocytes
  51. define LACUNAE
    encloses chondrocytes
  52. describe FIBROCARTILAGE (mature connective tissue/ cartilage)
    • has a more fibrous appearance
    • collagen fibers are coarser & gathered together into thick bundles
    • found in the pubic symphysis (where the bones of the pelvis are joined), in the discs b/n vertebrae, in padding of knees (menisci), & where tendon inserts into cartilage
  53. describe ELASTIC CARTILAGE (mature connective tissue/ cartilage)
    • makes up the flap- sorts out liquid from air in the throat (epiglottis), in the external ear, & in tubes that connect ear to mouth that "pop" when pressure changes (auditory tubes or Eustachian tubes)
    • made up of meshwork of elastic fibers surrounding the chondrocytes
  54. what are the 2 types of BONE (mature connective tissue/ bone)?
    • 1. compac bone
    • 2. spongy bone
  55. define OSTEOCYTES
    cells of the bone
  56. describe COMPACT BONE (mature connective tissue/ bone)
    has complex & regular structure consisting of osteons as the basic functional & anatomical unit
  57. describe SPONGY BONE (mature connective tissue/ bone)
    • has a much more irregular structure
    • spikes of mineralized tissue have ample space b/n for red bone marrow
  58. what are the 2 types of LIQUID (mature connective tissue/ liquid)?
    • 1. blood (red blood cells(erythrocytes), white blood cells(leukocytes), & platelets(thrombocytes)) red & white are cells, platelets are cell fragments- these components are COLLECTIVELY called formed elements, a thick liquid connective tissue matrix-plasma(primarily salt water plus proteins) surrounds these formed elements
    • 2. lymph- a filtrate of blood w/ most of the cells & some of the protein removed- white blood cells move around in the lymph to guard against invaders
  59. what are the 5 main types of JUNCTIONS b/n cells?
    • tight junctions
    • adherens junctions
    • desmosomes
    • hemidesmosome
    • gap junctions
  60. discuss cell junctions
    • problem: need to link cytoskeleton of adjacent cells to each other
    • or, need to link cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix
    • cell junctions perform this function (tight, adherens, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, & gap junctions)
  61. describe TIGHT JUNCTIONS (cell junction)
    • "ziplock bags" of tissue world
    • found where a tight, leakproof seal is needed (b/n 2 or more cells where substances cannot be allowed to percolate b/n cells)
    • ex: stomach, intestines, urinary bladder: keep material from leaking out of these organs
  62. describe ADHERENS JUNCTIONS (cell junction)
    • use a protein call cadherin (glycoprotein that holds these together)
    • adhesion belt, like the belt on your pants, keeps tissues from separating as they stretch & contract
  63. describe DESMOSOMES (cell junction)
    • used as "spot welds" to hold tissue together against mechanical disruption b/n 2 cells
    • also use cadherin b/n the cells, plus intermediate filaments hooking it to cytoskeleton
  64. describe HEMIDESMOSOMES (cell junction)
    • 1/2 a desmosomes
    • these are found NOT b/n 2 cells, but rather b/n a cell & its basement membrane
    • a protein called integrin is used to link the hemidesmosome to the basement membrane
    • here, spot weld joins cell to the basement membrane
  65. describe GAP JUNCTIONS (cell junction)
    • serves an electrical & biochemical link b/n 2 cells (in contrast to mechanical links)
    • pores (connexons (formed from protein, connexin)) allow substances <1000Da to pass b/n cells
    • calcium and other small, hydrophilic ions can pass through the channel formed by connexons
    • cells are electrically coupled
    • if one of the cells gets sick or dies, then [Ca++] increases & these seal like a hatch
  66. give & describe the 3 membranes of epithelial membranes
    • epithelium + connective tissue= epithelial membrane
    • called epithelial membranes because of the overlying layer of epithelium, mucous, serous, & cutaneous membranes all have a layer of epithelium w/ an underlying areolar connective tissue
    • 3 epithelial membranes are:
    • mucous membrane- line exterior surfaces of body- digestive, respiratory, & reproductive tract
    • serous membrane- parietal layer(next to body wall), serous fluid b/n, & visceral layer(next to organ)
    • cutaneous membrane (integument or skin)
  67. what are the 2 membranes?
    epithelial & synovial membranes
  68. define LAMINA PROPRIA
    connective tissue layer of mucous membranes
    • synovial membranes= connective tissue only
    • line the space b/n 2 bones forming a joint
    • found only @ joints(where 2 bones come together)
    • connective tissue secretes synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint
  70. define & describe MUSCULAR TISSUE
    • present wherever body needs to generate force, it moves body, maintains posture, & generates heat
    • each kind of muscle tissue uses 2 cytoskeletal proteins to generate heat- myosin & actin
    • there are 3 main types of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, & smooth
  71. describe SKELETAL MUSCLE (muscular tissue)
    • aka voluntary muscle, we "choose" to use it
    • it's a type of striated muscle, it appears to be striped/striated (when looking @ it under microscope)
    • made up of muscle cells that have fused to form a long, thin tube (or myofiber called syncytium("joined cells")), w/ multiple nuclei visible on the outside of the muscle fiber
  72. describe CARDIAC MUSCLE(muscular tissue)
    • also has a striated appearance, but not generally thought of as under voluntary control
    • fibers are joinded in branches, rather than running parallel to each other (as they do in skeletal muscle)
    • 1 or 2 nuclei per fiber instead of dozens
  73. describe SMOOTH MUSCLE (muscular tissue)
    • NOT under voluntary control (ex: gut tube is lined w/ smooth muscle that keeps digestion proceeding from mouth to anus)
    • single cells, each w/ 1 nucleus, & cytoskeleton is arranged in a random fashion so that it doesn't have a striated appearance
  74. define & describe NERVOUS TISSUE
    • manipulates info
    • only tissue in body that can manipulate electrical charges to receive, process, & transmit info
    • *muscle cells manipulate charges, but contract & don't send info
    • *all other tissues have electrical charges, but most can't control them
    • 2 main cell types: neurons (info processing) & glial cells (support & maintenance)
    • muscle & nerve tissue together
    • by manipulating the flow of electrical charge, they can produce action potentials & other unique electrical events inside the cell