ocs1005-3

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Author:
x0juliaox
ID:
14313
Filename:
ocs1005-3
Updated:
2010-04-13 18:18:44
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ocs 1005 exam 3
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Description:
7-ocean chemistry, 12-coasts, 13-life in ocean
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  1. what kind of molecule is water?
    polar
  2. a solution is made up of how many components
    2
  3. what is usually a liquid and always the more abundant constituent?
    solvent
  4. what is usually a dissolved solid or gas and is less abundant?
    solute
  5. in a MIXTURE, different substances are ______ but retain ____
    in a MIXTURE, different substances are CLOSELY INTERMINGLED but retain SEPARATE IDENTITIES
  6. the properties of a mixture are heterogeneous or homogeneous?
    heterogenous
  7. an ION is an ____ (or small group of atoms) that has an ___________ because it has gained or lost one or more ____.
    an ION is an ATOM (or small group of atoms) that has an UNBALANCED ELECTRICAL CHARGE because it has gained or lost one more ELECTRONS
  8. the sodium atoms in nacl have gained or lost electrons?
    lost
  9. the chlorine atoms in nacl have gained or lost electrons?
    gained
  10. the ions of sodium and chloride in nacl are said to be held together by what?
    ionic bonds
  11. when NaCl dissolves in water, the ________ of water reduces the _________ (ionic bonding) between the ______ and ____ ions, which causes the two ions to _____.
    when NaCl dissolves in water, the POLARITY of water reduces the ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION (ionic bonding) between the Na+ and Cl- ions, which causes the two ions to SEPARATE.
  12. NaCl does not exist as ____ in seawater.
    salt
  13. does oil dissolve in water?
    no
  14. dissolved substances tend to diffuse from regions of ____ concentration of those substances to regions of ____ concentration.
    dissolved substances tend to diffuse from regions of HIGH concentration of those substances to regions of LOW concentration.
  15. when no more of a substance will dissolve in water, the water is said to be ____ with that substance.
    when no more of a substance will dissolve in water, the water is said to be SATURATED with that substance.
  16. at saturation, the rate at which molecules of the solute are being dissolved equals the rate which they are undergoing ______ at another location in the solution.
    precipitation
  17. what makes water a polar molecule?
    opposite ends attract, positive ends attract to to particles with a negative charge
  18. what properties of water derive from its polar nature?

    when water comes into contact with compounds whose elements are held together by the attraction of opposite electrical charges, the _________ will separate that ______ from each other.
    when water comes into contact with compounds whose elements are held together by the attraction of opposite electrical charges, the polar water molecule will separate that compounds component elements from each other.
  19. How does a crystal of common salt dissolve in water?

    the ions of sodium and chloride in NaCl are held together by _____, _____ attraction that exists between ions that have _____ charge. When NaCl dissolves in water, the polarity of water _____ the electrostatic attraction (ionic bonding) between the _____ and the two ions _____.
    the ions of sodium and chloride in NaCl are held together by ionic bonds, electrostatic attraction that exists between ions that have opposite charge. When NaCl dissolves in water, the polarity of water reduces the electrostatic attraction (ionic bonding) between the Na+ and Cl- ions and the two ions separate.
  20. How does a solution differ from a mixture?

    A solution is made of ____ components: The solvent, usually a ____, is always the ____ abundant constituent; the solute, often a _________, is the _____ abundant. In a true solution, the molecules of the solute are ___________ among the molecules of solvent-- the solution has uniform properties throughout. In a mixture, different substances are _______ but retain ________.
    A solution is made of two components: The solvent, usually a liquid, is always the more abundant constituent; the solute, often a dissolved solid or gas, is the less abundant. In a true solution, the molecules of the solute are homogeneously dispersed among the molecules of solvent-- the solution has uniform properties throughout. In a mixture, different substances are closely intermingled but retain separate identities.
  21. what percent of the earths surface water is marine? seawater is about ____% water and ____% dissolved substances
    97.2%, 96.5%, 3.5%
  22. What is the total quantity (or concentration) of dissolved inorganic solids in water?
    salinity
  23. what is the average ocean salinity?
    3.5%
  24. the heat capacity of water _____ with increasing salinity; which means ____ heat is necessary to raise the temperature of ______ by 1deg. than is required to raise the temp. of _______ by the same amount
    the heat capacity of water decreases with increasing salinity; which means less heat is necessary to raise the temperature of seawater by 1def. than is required to raise the temp. of freshwater by the same amount.
  25. dissolved salts disrupt the webwork of _____________ in water. As salinity increases, the freezing point of water becomes _____; the salts act as a sort of ______. Sea ice therefore forms at a ______ temperature than ice in freshwater lakes.
    dissolved salts disrupt the webwork of hydrogen bonding in water. As salinity increases, the freezing point of water becomes lower; the salts act as a sort of antifreeze. Sea ice therefore forms at a lower temperature than ice in freshwater lakes
  26. Because dissolved salts tend to attract _________, seawater evaporates _______ than freshwater. Swimmers usually notice that freshwater evaporates _____ and ______ from their skin, but seawater ____.
    Because dissolved salts tend to attract water molecules, seawater evaporates more slowly than freshwater. Swimmers usually notice that freshwater evaporates quickly and completely from their skin, but seawater lingers.
  27. elements present in amount less than 0.001% parts per hundred (1ppm) are known as _____
    trace elements
  28. the components of ocean water whose proportions are not accounted for by the weathering of surface rocks are called _____
    excess volatiles
  29. the _____ appears to contain more the substances found in seawater than found in surface rocks
    upper mantle
  30. ______ slowly churn earths mantle, causing the movement of ________. Because of this activity, some deeply trapped volatile substances escape to the _____, outgassing through _____ and _______. These excess volatiles include ______, _____, _____, ______, ______, ______, and ________.
    Convection currents slowly churn earths mantle, causing the movement of tectonic plates. Because of this activity, some deeply trapped volatile substances escape to the exterior, outgassing through volcanoes and rift vents. These excess volatiles include carbon dioxide, chlorine, sulfur, hydrogen, fluorine, nitrogen, and water vapor.
  31. what is the measure of the total mass of halogen ions in seawater
    chlorinity
  32. what are halogens
    fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine
  33. what is the formula that determines salinity
    salinity in 0/00 = 1.80655 X Chlorinity in 0/00
  34. average chlorinity is about _____, and average salinity is _____
    19.20/00 ; 34.70/00
  35. an electrical device that measures the electrical conductivity of seawater
    salinometer
  36. circuits in the salinometer adjust for ______, convert _____, and then display ____
    circuits in the salinometer adjust for water temperature, convert conductivity to salinity, and then display salinity
  37. the average length of time an atom of an element spends in the ocean
    residence time
  38. residence time equation
    residence time = amount of element in the ocean/rate at which the element is added to (or removed from) the ocean
  39. How is seawaters salinity expressed?

    The total quantity (or concentration) of dissolved inorganic solids in water is its ____. The oceans salinity varies from about _______by mass.
    The total quantity (or concentration) of dissolved inorganic solids in water is its salinity. The oceans salinity varies from about 3.3% to 3.7% by mass.

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