BIO CELL E2 C4 P2

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BIO CELL E2 C4 P2
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2012-03-28 22:50:18
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BIO CELL E2 C4 P2
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BIO CELL E2 C4 P2 GSU SP 2012
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  1. Facilitated diffusion and conformational shifts.
    NAME THE 4 STEPS.
  2. Kinetics of facilitated diffusion. WHAT'S FASTER? PROTEIN MEDIATED (FACILIATED DIFFUSION) OR SIMPLE DIFFUSION?
  3. Four basic mechanisms for solute movement across membranes. NAME THEM.
  4. Like facilitated diffusion, active transport depends on..WHAT 3 THINGS?
    • Integral membrane proteins
    • Selective binding
    • Conformational change driven
  5. NAME 3 IONS THAT ARE INVOLED IN ACTIVE TRANSPORT.
    • K+
    • Na
    • Cl
  6. T OR F ?
    ACTIVE TRANSPORT IS THE MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCE AGAINST THE GRADIENTS.
    TRUE
  7. NAME 4 PROCESSES THAT UTILIZE ACTIVE TRANSPORT
    • ATP hydrolysis
    • Absorption of light (Fig 4.47 Bacteriorhodopsin proton pump)
    • Transport of electrons
    • Down gradient flow of substances
  8. Coupling Active Transport to ATP hydrolysis.
    The ratio of ____:____ pumped is_____: _____
    The ratio of Na+:K+ pumped is 3:2
  9. Coupling Active Transport to ATP hydrolysis.
    The ATPase is a _____ type pump?
    P-type
  10. DEFINE:
    Coupling Active Transport to ATP hydrolysis
    The Na+ -K+ ATPase requires K+ outside, Na+ and ATP inside, and is inhibited by ouabain.

    The ratio of Na+:K+ pumped is 3:2.

    Found only in animals and evolved early as a means to regulate volume and create large Na+ and K+ gradients.
  11. DEFINE Phosphorylation IN REFERENCE TO ACTIVE TRANSPORT.
    • causes changes in conformation and ion affinity that allow transport against gradients.
  12. WHAT DOES OUABAIN DO?
    DECREASES K AND INCREASES Na.
  13. The Na+ -K+ ATPase requires ____ outside, ____ & _____ inside, and is inhibited by _______.
    • K+ outside,
    • Na+ and ATP inside,
    • ouabain
  14. _________ strengthens heart contraction by inhibiting pump, increasing Ca+
    Digitalis
  15. NAME 2 PLANTS THAT FUCK WITH THE Coupling
    Active Transport to ATP hydrolysis.
    OUABAIN & DIGITALIS
  16. IN THE NA+/K+ ATPase transport cycle, WHAT HAPPENS IN THE E1 AND E2 CONFORMATIONS?
    • E1..Na IN
    • E2...Na OUT

  17. NAME 3 TYPES OF ION TRANSPORTERS
    • H+ and Ca+ ATPase
    • H+/K+ ATPase (STOMACH)
    • Na+-K+ ATPase (CELLS)
  18. NAME THE PROCESS THAT SECRETES ACIDS INTO THE STOMACH?
    • H+/K+ ATPase.
    • Triggered by hormones when food enters stomach.
  19. NAMETHE 2 TYPES OF PUMPS (FOR IONS)
    P AND V TYPES
  20. WHERE WOULD ONE FIND VACUOLAR TYPE PUMPS?
    • Found in vacuoles (V)
    • LysosomesKidney tubules

    • Vacuolar (V type) pumps use ATP
    • Are not phosphorylated during pumping
  21. acid secretion in Stomach... WHEN THE HISTAMINE IS IN PLACE WHAT HAPPENS TO THE CONCENTRATION OF H+ AND K+?
    • H+ LEVELS IN CYTOSOL DECREASE AS THEY ARE EXCRETED TO THE OUTSIDE TO NEUTRALIZE ACIDS AND K+ GOES INTO CELL TO INCREASE LEVELS.
  22. Vacuolar (V type) pumps, Found in vacuoles, PRIMARY FUNCTION?
    MAINTAIN ACID BALANCE
  23. T OR F?
    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have regulatory ATP-binding sites
    TRUE
  24. _______is a genetic disease characterized by abnormal fluid secretions from tissues.
    Caused by a defective chloride channel.
    • CF
    • CYCTIC FIBERIOUS
  25. ABC STANDS FOR WHAT???
    • ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters
    • have regulatory ATP-binding sites.
  26. CFTR polypeptide
    Two nucleotide-dependent regulatory sites
    Defect prevents normal insertion of the CFTR polypeptide into the membrane
    WHAT GENETIC DISORDER ?
    ABC TRANSPORTER DELETION
  27. WHAT BACTERIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH CF?
    Rod shaped bacteria P. aeruginosa in CF patient respiratory tract
  28. WHAT ENZYME IS USED TO DETERMINE THE MEMBRANE PROTEIN ORIENTATION OF AN INTACT CELL MEMBRANE?
    nonpenetrating enzyme trypsin
  29. JUST UNDERSTAND THIS:
  30. WHAT METHODS IS USED TO READ PROTEIN ORIENTATION?
    • SDS Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)
  31. Rate a protein migrates in electric current is_______ _______ to its molecular mass
    inversely proportional
  32. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF SDS IN REGARDS TO PROTEIN ORIENTATION?
    SDS is an ionic surfactant that linearizes and nullifies protein charge to allow mass to be only factor in separtation
  33. DEFINE SECONDARY TRANSPORT.
    • GRADIENT ENERGY COUPLING.
  34. _______ is absent from the plasma cells of most plants and all bacteria cells?
    • sterol cholesterol.
    • only in animal, upto 50%
  35. WHAT IS MORE COMMOM THE PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES OR SPHINGOLIPIDS TYPE ?
    PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES
  36. SPHINGOLIPIDS ARE ALSO KNOWN AS WHAT?
    CERAMIDS
  37. WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE ONLY PHOSPHOLID THAT DOES NOT HAVE A SUGAR BACKBINE?
    • SPHINGOMYELIN.
    • COMPOSED OF PHOSPHORYLCHOLINE.
  38. NAME TWO GLYCOLIPDS AND THERE COMPOSITION.
    • Have larger carbohydrate chains
    • Used as cell to cell recognition sites
    • Cerebrocide = simple sugar + lipid
    • Ganglioside = oligosaccharide + lipid
  39. hydropathy plot DEALS WITH WHAT TYPE OF AA?
    NONPOLAR AA IN ALPHA-HELICES.

    REMEMBER THAT NONPOLAR IS HYDROPHOBIC BUT THE CHANNEL PROTEINS HAVE HYDROPHILIC CORES!
  40. Electron Paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.
    WHAT DOES IT TEST AND HOW?
    • show conformational changes in bacterial K+ ion channel.
    • LOOKS AT THE pH LEVELS AND HOW THEY CHANGE DURING EACH EVENT.
  41. Remodeling lipid layers TO MAINTAIN MEMBRANE FLUIDITY involves WHAT 2 ENZYMES?
    lipases & transferases
  42. Maintaining Membrane Fluidity OCCURS IN RESPONSE TO WHAT?
    IN WHAT ORGANISMS?
    • COLD.
    • ORGANISMS...NOT BIRDS OR MAMMALS
  43. Sphingomyelin IS WHAT TYPE OF MEMBRANE LIPID?
    PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
  44. Which of the following is not true of membrane phosphoglycerides?
    A. They include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and cholesterol, among others.
    B. They have two fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule, and a polar head group attached via a phosphate. D. They can have both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
    C. They are amphipathic.
    A. They include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and cholesterol, among others.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Site-directed cross-linking is a technique that gives insight into what property of integral membrane proteins?
    A. number of transmembrane domains
    B. proximity of various membrane-spanning domains to each other
    C. on which side of the membrane the N and C termini are found
    D. none of the above
    B. proximity of various membrane-spanning domains to each other
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Which one of the following organisms would you predict has the highest proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in their membranes?
    A. Antarctic fish
    B. humans
    C. cactus
    D. bacteria from thermal hot springs
    A. Antarctic fish
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Which of the following statements about the mobility of membrane components is true?
    A. Lipids and proteins “flip-flop” between membrane leaflets more readily than they move within the plane of the membrane.
    B. Proteins generally move more rapidly than lipids within the plane of the membrane.
    C. Proteins and lipids move equally rapidly within the plane of the membrane.
    D. Lipids generally move more rapidly than proteins within the plane of the membrane.
    D. Lipids generally move more rapidly than proteins within the plane of the membrane.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. The distribution of K+ across an artificial membrane was measured, and the concentrations were found to be equal on both sides. Which of the following statements is true about the distribution of K+?
    A. More information is needed to determine whether K+ is at equilibrium.
    B. K+ must be at equilibrium across the cell membrane.
    C. K+ cannot be at equilibrium across the membrane.
    D. There cannot be a membrane potential under these conditions.
    A. More information is needed to determine whether K+ is at equilibrium.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Which of the following is an example of an ion transporter?
    A. Na+-K+ ATPase
    B. ABC transporter
    C. CFTR
    D. all of the above
    D. all of the above
  50. Arrange the statements below in the proper sequence of events that occur in an action potential:
    I. The resting potential is reestablished.
    II. A stimulus depolarizes the membrane to threshold.
    III. Na+ gates open and Na+ rushes into the cell.
    IV. K+ gates open and K+ rushes out of the cell.
    A. III, IV, II, I
    B. I, II, IV, III
    C. II, III, IV, I
    D. II, IV, III, I
    C. II, III, IV, I
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. A neurotransmitter that binds to a postsynaptic cell and opens K+ channels:
    A. depolarizes the postsynaptic cell.
    B. excites the postsynaptic cell.
    C. inhibits the postsynaptic cell.
    D. must be acetylcholine.
    C. inhibits the postsynaptic cell.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Much of what we know about the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has come from studies of:
    A. E. coli bacteria.
    B. simple, single-celled organisms.
    C. the Torpedo marmarota electric organ.
    D. the human heart.
    C. the Torpedo marmarota electric organ.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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