Jeopardy on Neurologic Dysfunctions
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Jeopardy on Neurologic Dysfunctions
pathophysiology jeopardy neurologic
questions and answers on neurologic dysfunctions
What part of the brain stem maintains arousal “awakeness”?
Reticular activating system (RAS)
What occurs during central herniation?
Downward displacement of cerebral hemispheres compressing midbrain structures
What is an example of diffuse axonal injury?
Shaken baby syndrome is an example
Describe manifestations of expressive dysphasia
Can receive, but not express communication,poorly articulated simple speech
What are manifestations of basilar or vertebral arteries cerebrovascular accidents?
Gait disturbances (ataxia), dysphagia,vertigo, & diplopia
What is a concussion?
Only confusion and amnesia after diffuse brain injury
What is the most important indicator of brain function?
Level of consciousness
What is Cheynes-Stokes respirations? or
What breathing pattern is expected with damage to the cortex?
Breathing pattern with periods of apnea between normal breaths
What is ataxic breathing?
Breathing pattern expected with damage to the pons or upper medulla oblongata
What is compliance?
Increase in one component of the cranium is offset by reducing the volume of one of the other components
What is a classic cerebral concussion?
Diffuse cerebral disconnection from RAS with loss of consciousness <6 hrs
What are early warning signs prior to rupture of cerebral aneurysm?
Profound headache,photophobia & stiff neck prior to rupture
What causes double vision after a basilar artery stroke?
Impairment of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI after a basilar artery stroke
What is the pathophysiology of diffuse brain injury?
All brain cells fire at once releasing glutamate and triggering release of potassium
What is a cortical contusion?
Bruising of cortical tissue causing immediate loss of consciousness for no more than 5 minutes
What is abnormal extension?
Movement expected when assessing a client with damage to the midbrain
What finding from an eye assessment is expected when the client has a right uncal herniation?
After shining a light in the eyes, the right pupil is dilated, the left pupil constrict
What is an epidural hematoma?
Collection of blood above the dura from an artery
What are semi-modifiable risk factors for a cerebrovascular accident (brain attack or stroke)?
Atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, & atrial fibrillation
What causes dysphagia after a basilar artery stroke?
Impairment of cranial nerves IX and X after a basilar artery stroke
What are clinical manifestations of meningitis (bacterial)?
Chills & fever, headache, backache, stiff neck,nausea & vomiting,photophobia
What are manifestations of impaired carotid circulation?
Contralateral hemiplegia, & hemisensory, visual field defects &neglect syndrome
What is a subdural hematoma?
Intracranial hematoma that develops in 24 hours to 2 weeks or more
What finding from an eye assessment is expected when the client has a central herniation?
After shining a light into the eyes, both pupils are dilated
What is the pathogenesis of seizures?
Excessive and autonomous firing of cerebral neurons
What is the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease?
Dopamine from substantia nigra in the basal ganglia is depleted
What is meningomyelocele?
Sac-like structure protrudes thru a vertebral defect containing meninges, spinal cord, and CSF
What is Guillain Barre?
Inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system
What are manifestations of Guillain Barre?
Progressive ascending paralysis beginning in the legs,may involve respiratory muscles
What is the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis?
Autoimmune disorder in which myelin in central nervous system is destroyed.
What are manifestations of Parkinson disease?
Bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor , and masked facies with no change in consciousness
What is an absence seizure?
A seizures in which the client has a short lapse of consciousness (about 5 - 10 sec)
What is a tonic-clonic seizure?
A seizure in which there is loss of consciousness withbody stiffness alternating with muscle spasms
What are manifestations of spastic cerebral palsy?
Hypertonic and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes seen in children
What are manifestations of multiple sclerosis?
Manifestations are highly variable from visual impairment to paralysis with fatigue being a common one.
What are manifestations of Bell’s palsy?
Unilateral facial weakness, facial droop and diminished eye blink
What is Bell’s palsy?
Paralysis or paresis of the 7th cranial nerve (facial)
What occurs in the secondary cascade of spinal cord injury?
Hemorrhage and edema result ischemia and necrosis of the spinal cord.
What is a definition of hydrocephalus?
Abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space
What is status epilepticus?
One seizure after another without a period of recovery
What is a characteristic of a partial seizure?
Seizure activity that is restricted to one hemisphere
What is the cause of obstructive hydrocephalus?
Impaired flow of cerebrospinal fluid between the 3rd and 4th ventricles.
What are manifestations of spinal shock after spinal cord injury?
Flaccid paralysis,anesthesia below injury level, transient drop in BP
What are manifestations of a lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus
Pain radiates along the sciatic nerve when client coughs or sneezes
What is the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis?
Destruction of acetylcholine receptors by an autoimmune process
What is a cause of autonomic dysreflexia (hyperreflexia)?
Full bladder of client with spinal cord injury stimulates sympathetic nervous system.
What is a cause of communicating hydrocephalus?
Impaired absorption of cerebrospinal fluid due to subarachnoid hemorrhage.
What are manifestations of complex partial seizures?
Client displays automatisms (continue doing what you were doing at time of seizure)
What is the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease?
Development of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid deposits in the form of senile plaques. Normal tau proteins are altered and nerve cells degenerate around an amyloid core.
What is meningocele?
Sac-like cyst filled with CSF protrudes thru a defective vertebrae.
What are manifestations of autonomic hyperreflexia?
Severe HTN, bradycardia headache, sweating & flushing
What are manifestations of bulbar myasthenia gravis (CN IX, X, XI, XII)?
Dysphagia, aspiration and pneumonia