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- author "Tyler"
- tags "Drug Therapy Pregnant, Breast Feeding, Peds, & Immunizations"
- description ""
- fileName "Pharm II - Test 1"
- What physiologic changes take place during the 3rd trimester? How does is affect dosing?
- Renal blood flow is doubled and renal excretion is accelerated. Therefore you have increased excretion so you need to increase your dose!
What happens during pregnancy to the bowels?
The tone and mobility of bowel decreases, therefore it increases absorption. Decrease dose!!
Third trimester dosing vs. mobility of bowel decrease results in what?
They both cancel each other out, therefore you would leave the dosage of a drug the same.
How can Heparin affect the fetus?
What can prostaglandins do to the fetus?
Stimulate uterine contraction
How can pain relievers affect fetus?
May depress respiration in the new born
When is the most dangerous time to take a drug during pregnancy?
1st trimester (weeks 3-18)
What should you teach women of child bearing age?
Treat their bodies as if they were pregnant. -take Folic Acid
Classic teratogenic exposure?
- Day 31-81 from LMP
- (based on 28 day cycle)
If a pregnant woman was having constipation what would you advise her to do?
- Drink warm juice
- Increase fiber
If a pregnant woman has nausea what would you inform her to do?
If a pregnant woman was having muscle pain what would you instruct her to do?
Hot & Cold Therapies
Category A drugs in pregnancy?
Nothing falls under this category
Category B drugs during pregnancy?
the Best 👍
no risk in animals/humans according to studies
Category C drugs in pregnancy?
use Caution ⚠
- 2/3 of all meds
- animal studies show risk
Category D drugs in pregnancy?
evidence of human risk
Category X drugs during pregnancy?
❌ these off your list!
fetal abnormalities likely
What are some ways that you can decrease passing a drug to an infant?
- -Take drug immediately after breast feeding
- -avoid drugs with long half-life
- -choose drugs that tend to be excluded from milk
Age requirements for Peds patient?
16 and younger
Peds Patients and drugs?
- More sensitive to drugs
- Show greater individual variation
- Sensitive due to immature organ system
Oral administration in infants?
Gastric motility doesn't mature until age 2
What type of administration should you not use on an infant?
Distribution in infants?
Blood-brain barrier isn't developed therefor you have CNS side effects
What type of cream should you not use on an infant?
Immaturity of organs puts infants at risk for what response(s)?
More intense response or a prolonged response
Children metabolize drugs faster until what age?
Dosing in infants?
- Under 1 = Lower
- Over 1 = Higher
Glucocorticoids could cause what adverse effect in children?
Tetracyclines could cause what adverse effect in children?
Sulfonamides could cause what adverse effect in children?
Aspirin could cause what adverse effect in children?
Fluroquinolones could cause what adverse effects in children?
Dosing in children is best based on what?
Body Surface Area (BSA)
When should a fever cease after the first administration of an antibiotic?
When would you expect to see an adverse reaction to an immunization?
A few days afterwards
Symptom of whooping cough (pertussis)?
- Gasping Cough
- (infants are vulnerable)
Symptoms of Measles?
- Koplik spots (bright red spots in throat)
- URI professing to serious disease
Where is H. Flu prominent in? And why is it such a concern?
Prominent in bacterial ear 👂 infections
Meningitis is a great concern because it could develop into it.
Symptoms of Rotovirus?
Gastroenteritis with profound diarrhea and vomiting that causes severe dehydration
Symptoms of Influenza?
A respiratory illness with a rapid onset, fever, general malaise - muscle aches
Before giving a patient a flu vaccination what should you make sure they aren't allergic to?
What is the most effective way to treat?
Immunity!! Therefor staying up to date on vaccines.
Symptoms of small pox?
- Pustules all in the same phase
- Mild Respiratoy Illness
Who would get the inactivated flu vaccine?
- Pregnant women
- Chemo Patients
- Inmunocompromised pts
Adverse Effects of Immunizations: Mild
- (expected) >25%
- -Low grade fever
- -Injection site irritation
Adverse Effects of Immunizations: Moderate
High Grade Temp
Adverse Effects of Immunizations: Severe
- Allergic Reaction
- Guillane Barre