A.P gov

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A.P gov
2012-03-22 19:12:07
gov terms congress

these are a ton of congressional terms
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  1. Apportionment/Reappoitionment
    cerncus every 10 years..population of each state determines the new number of reps
  2. Approprition
    money set aside (as by legislature) for a specific purpose
  3. bicameral
    consiting of two chambers of legislative houses
  4. bill (public/private)
    for general country, intended to become a law/bill that only applies to certain groups
  5. casework
    efforts made by members of congtress to help individual/grop when they have difficuties when federal agency
  6. caucus
    private meeting of party leaders to choose candidates for office
  7. censure
    blame, critism, strong dissaporoval
  8. census
    tool used to count the population in demographic changes in the united states
  9. christmas tree bill
    a bill that has many riders to inceaxse its chances of being passed
  10. cloture
    a parliamentartu maneuver that if 3/5 majorirty voters for it, limits senate debate to thirty hours and has the effect of defeating a fillabuster
  11. coattails
    tendency of candidaties to win more voters in an election b/c of the preence a the top of the ticket of a better known candidate like a president
  12. committee chairman
    members who head the standing committes in each chamber of congress
  13. committee staff
    people who work for the house and senate committess
  14. conference comittee
    committee appoited by the president officers of each chamber to adjust difference on a particular bill passed by each chamber
  15. congressional budget office
    advises congression on the probaility consequenses of its decision forcasts, revenues, and its a counterweight to the president office of management and budget
  16. constituent
    supporter voter memeber
  17. direct primary
    electiopn which voters choose party nominess
  18. discharge petition
    petition that if signed by majority of the house and rep memberswill try for a bill from the committee and bring it to the floor for the consideration
  19. district
    region/area that is bound together by specific rules, laws, and resources
  20. dividied government
    presidency and the other controls one or btoh houses of congress
  21. ethics
    principles of right and wrong that guife n individual and making decisions
  22. federal election commission
    independent agency in the executive branch to admister federal election laws
  23. fillbuster
    tactic for delaying or obstuction by legisation by making long speeches
  24. franking privilege
    benefits allowing members of congress to mail letters and other materials postage free
  25. gerrymandering
    process of redrawing legislative boundries for the purpose of benifiting the party in power
  26. government accountability office
    independent and non-partisan agency that investigates how the national government spends money; serves as a detective for congress
  27. great compromise
    state will have equal rep in one houser of legislature and rep population in the other house
  28. gridlock
    situtation where nothing can move foward or proceed
  29. hard/soft money
    political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed./ political contributions made in such a way as to avoid the united states regulations for federal election campaigns (as by contributions to a political action committee)
  30. house rules committee
    an institution unique to the house of rep that reviews all bills coming from a house committee before they go to the full house
  31. house ways and means committee
    house of rep committes that along with senate fiance committee write tax codes subjected to the approval of congress as a whole
  32. impeachment
    formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
  33. impoundment
    president refersal to spend money congress has voted to fund program
  34. incumbent
    obligatory requireed one who holds a specific office at the time spoken of
  35. investigative committee
  36. joint committee
    committees on which both senators and reps serve
  37. joint resolution
    propsal for action that has the force of law when passed, usually deals with speical cirucmstances of termporary matters
  38. junket
    trip especially one taken for pleasure by an public official at the public expense
  39. lame duck
    a person still in office after he/she has lost bid for reelection
  40. legislative oversight
    congress monotring of the bureacracy and its adminstration of policy, performed through mainly hearing
  41. log rolling
    a legisaltor supposrt a proposal favored by another in return for support in his/hers districts
  42. majority whip
    the majority leaders assistant
  43. majority leader
    legisalture leader selcted by majority party who helps plan party strategy, confers with other party leaders and tries to keep party members in line
  44. malapportionment
    drawling of boundaties by legisltive districts so they are unequal in population
  45. mark up sessions
    after hearings are completed, a congressional subcommittee will usually determine a bills future and find dilperation
  46. midterm elections
    congressional election that take place midwat through a president 4 year term
  47. minority leader
    the legislative leader selected by the minority party as spokes person for the oppostition
  48. minority whip
    minority leaders assistant
  49. partisanship
    very strong somtimes excessive support for one group, idea, or clause
  50. pigeonhole
    to set a bill asoide by a committee without considering it
  51. polarization of congress
  52. prok barrel legislation
    legislation that provides members of congress with federal project and programs for their individual district
  53. pro tempore
    for the time being, temporarily
  54. proportional representation
    an election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.
  55. quorum
    the minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action. the quorum in the house is 218 while in the senate it is 51
  56. reciprocity
    mutual exchange of commerical or other privilege
  57. retrospective voting
    voting for a candidate because you like his or her past actions in office
  58. rider
    amendment or clause added to a legisaltion bill
  59. select committee
    a temporary committee formed to study one specific issue and report its findings to the senate of the house
  60. senate judiciary committee
    holds confirmation hearings for the nominations for federal judges by the president.
  61. senatorial courtesy
    presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work.
  62. seniority system
    a system that gives the member of the majority party with the longest uninterrupted service on a particular committee the leadership of that committee
  63. session/special session
    an extraordinary session of a legislative body, called to deal with an emergency situation
  64. speaker of the house
    an office mandated by the constitution. the speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.
  65. staggered term
    if the directors are divided into two classes the members of each class are elected once a year in alternate years for a two year term; if divided into a 3 classes they are elected for three years. this permits one half of the board to be elected every 2 or 1/3 to be elected every 3 providing continuity in the boards membership
  66. standing committee
    a permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area
  67. subcommittee
    division of a standing congressional committee that deals with specific issues in the area handled by the committee as a whole
  68. upper house/lower house
    senate, house of rep.
  69. congressiona budget and impoundment control act
    an act designed to reform the congressional budgetary process; established a fixed budget calendar, a budget committee in each house, and the cbo, which advises congress on the probable consequences of its decisions, forecasts revenues, and is counterweight to omb
  70. family medical leave act
    1993; requires employers with 50 or more workers to grant up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year to allow workers to take time off to help care for a new baby or an ill family member without fear of losing their jobs.
  71. McCain Feingold Bill
    raised hard money limits to $2000 and banned soft money contributions to national political parties, campaign finance reform act
  72. medicare act
    1965, established health insurance for the elderly
  73. war power resolution
    a law passed in 1973 in reaction to american fighting in vietnam and cambodia that requires presidents to consult with congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless congress declares war or grants an extension.
  74. welfare reform act
    1996 law that established the temporary assistance for needy families program in place of the aid to families.
  75. baker v. carr
    case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
  76. reynolds v. simms
    ruled that state legislative districts must be roughly equal in population
  77. wesberry v. sanders
    ordered house of representative legislative districts to be as near in population as possible; extended baker v. carr, "one man, one vote," to the national government.
  78. shaw v. reno
    the court ruled that although it was a legitimate goal for state legislatures to take race into account when they draw electoral districts in order ot increase the voting strength of minorities, they may not make race the sole reason for drawing district lines. No racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.
  79. buckley v. valeo
    candidates can use as much of their own money on their own campaigns.
  80. McConnel v. FEC
    money is property, not speech. still, not all political speech is protected by the first amendment from government infringement.