ch 11-14

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ch 11-14
2012-03-25 10:44:06
brains nerves

brains and nerves
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  1. cervical spine has how many pairs of nerves
  2. there are 31 pairs of
    spinal nerves
  3. carries info into the brain and spinal cord through cranial and spinal nerves
    afferent neurons
  4. carries info from the brain to the spinal cord or out of the brain and spinal cord to the effector through cranial and spinal nerves
    efferent neurons
  5. storing in the brain
    integrative function
  6. functions of neural tissues are
    sensory, integrative, and motor
  7. connection between a nerve and a nerve
  8. inside the transmembrane potential is slightly
  9. outside the transmembrane potential is slightly
  10. define resting potential
    positive outside, negative inside
  11. changes in transmembrane potential primarily occur due to ( ? ) opening and closing in response to stimuli
    gated channels
  12. open when they bind specific chemicals
    chemically gated channels
  13. open in response to physical distortion of membrane
    mechanically gated channels
  14. three types of gated channels
    chemical, mechanical, and electrical (voltage)
  15. occurs along unmyelinated axons
    continuous conduction
  16. much faster than continuous propogation
    saltatory propogation
  17. is between each schwann cell
    node of ranvier
  18. specialized communication between neuron and another cell
  19. is space
  20. bears receptors for the neurotransmitters
    postsynaptic membrane
  21. synapse weakens until neurotransmitter can be replinished
    sunaptic fatigue
  22. release and binding of neurotransmitters takes -0.2-0.5 msec
    synaptic delay
  23. Two types of postsynaptic potentials
    excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
  24. closest to initial segment where action potential is generated
    axon hillock
  25. excitatory neuron has a
    negative charge
  26. inhibitory neuron has a
    positive charge
  27. most often outside our awareness
    nervous system
  28. CNS organization
    brain, cranial nerves, cranial reflexes, spinal cord, spinal nerves, spinal reflexes
  29. more complex nerves are
    brain, cranial nerves and cranial reflexes
  30. simpler of nerves are
    spinal cord, spinal nerves, and spinal reflexes
  31. made up of myelinated axons
    white matter
  32. carry sensory information towards the brain
    ascending tracts
  33. convey motor commands to the spinal cord
    desending tracts
  34. differentiate between sensory nuclei and motor nuclei
    sensory is asending towards the brain and motor is desending towards the spinal cord
  35. a disease that damages the myelin sheaths would affect which portion of the spinal cord?
    white matter
  36. name the structure of the spinal cord from deep to superficial
    endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium
  37. dense network of collagen fibers
  38. divide nerve into compartments that contain bundles of axon fasciles
  39. delicate connective tissues surrounding individual axons
  40. specific bilateral region of skin surface monitored by single pair of spinal nerves
  41. clinically important to determine damage or infection of spinal nerve or dorsal root ganglion
  42. viral infection of the dorsal root ganglia
  43. wiring of a single reflex from receptor to effector
    reflex arc
  44. reflexes your born with
    innate reflexes
  45. reflex with more nerves involved
    polysynaptic reflexes
  46. simple reflex
    monosynaptic reflexes
  47. jerking of hand is from what type of reflex?
    spinal reflex
  48. if you shine a light in one eye and the other eye shuts is a example of what type of reflex?
    cranial reflex
  49. what are the various types of reflexes
    development, response, innate, and monosynaptic
  50. may involve sensory and motor responses on the same side of body or opposite sides
    polysynaptic reflexes
  51. same side-examples are stretch reflex and withdrawal reflex
    ipsilateral reflexes
  52. opposite sides-examples are cross extensor reflex
    contralateral reflex
  53. learned reflex is called
  54. tapered end of actual spinal column
    conus medullaris
  55. resembles horses tail
    cauda equina
  56. what does PMS stand for
    posterior median sulcus
  57. dorsal root contains axons of what type of neurons
    sensory neurons
  58. ventral root contains axons of what type of neurons
    motor neurons
  59. shallow longitudinal groove on postierior surface
    posterior median sulcus
  60. what gives white matter its color
    myelinated axons
  61. on the posterior view of the spinal cord, what goes all the way to the edge
    gray matter
  62. three (four) layers of the spinal meninges
    dura mater, arachnoid, (sub arachnoid space), and pia mater
  63. what is in the sub arachnoid space
    cerebrospinal fluid
  64. three types of neurons
    sensory, motor, and inner neurons
  65. D-division is
    digestion, defecation, dieresis
  66. E-division
    emergency, excitement, exercise, and embarrassment
  67. Rest and digest, D-division, cranio-sacral, and house keeping are AKA's of
    parasympathetic division
  68. fight or flight, E-division, thoracic-lumbar, and survival are AKA's of
    sympathetic division
  69. the branch on the spinal nerve is called a
  70. cervical plexus, brachial plexus, lumbar plexus, sacral plexus are part of
    ventral rami plexus
  71. bundle of nerves
    nerve plexus
  72. c3, c4, and c5 keeps....
    the diaphram alive
  73. big as a thumb around
    sciatic nerve
  74. auditory cortex and visual cortex are what areas
  75. monitors auditory information
    primary auditory cortex
  76. monitors sensory activity in auditory cortex and recognizes sounds, such as spoken words
    auditory association area
  77. recieves information from lateral geniculate nucleai
    primary visual cortex
  78. monitors activity in visual cortex and interprets results
    visual association area
  79. intergrating sensory information and accessing visual and auditory memories
    wernicke area/general interpretive area
  80. motor speech area/ regulates patterns in breathing and vocalization needed for normal speech
    broca area
  81. premotor cortex controlling hand movements is larger for right handed individuals
    contralateral resprentation
  82. recognizes faces, understanding 3-d relationships
    right cerebral hemisphere
  83. unusually high percentage of musicians and artists
    left handedness
  84. which bran part is affected in a stroke victim who is unable to speak
    • wernicke area (thinking)
    • broca area ( motor)
  85. information carried by sensory pathway
  86. conscious awareness of sensation
  87. processing centers in spinal cord or brain stem respond before sensations reach cerebral cortex
    immediate involuntary response
  88. nociceptors are
    pain receptors
  89. thermoreceptors are
    tempurature receptors
  90. chemoreceptors are
    respond to water soluble and lipid soluble substances dissolved in body fluids
  91. mechanoreceptors are
    sensitive to stimuli that distort their plasma membranes
  92. learned motor skills and balance
  93. plans and initiates voluntary motor activity
    cerebral cortex
  94. sensation of pain in part of body othe than actual source
    referred pain
  95. heart attack pain felt in left arm is
    referred pain
  96. goes the opposite direction
    retrograde flow
  97. rabies is injected into what type of tissues
    peripheral tissues
  98. refers to a number of disorders that affects voluntary motor performance
    cerebral palsy
  99. progressive, degenerative disorder that affects motor neurons in spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebrum
    ALS- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  100. progressive disorder characterized by loss of higher order cerebral functions
    Alzheimers disease
  101. deep grooves that subdivide hemispheres
  102. folds in cerbral cortex that increases surface area
  103. shallow depressions in cerebral cortx that seperate adjacent gyri
  104. second largest surface of the brain
  105. coordination and modulation of motor commands from cerebral cortex
  106. structrual and functional link between cerebral hemispheres and rest of CNS
  107. gateway to the cortex
  108. contains centers involved with emotions, autonomic function, and hormone production
  109. contains centers that help maintain consciousness
  110. connects cerebellum to the brain stem

    has tracts and relay centers

    contains nuclei that function in somatic and visceral motor control
  111. major centers that regulate autonomic function
    medulla oblongata
  112. fluid filled cavities.

    lined with ependymal cells
  113. roof- partially formed by thick white matter tract connecting hemispheres (corpus callosum)
    lateral ventricles
  114. narrows to become central canal of spinal cord
    fourth ventricle
  115. 6 major regions of the brain
    cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
  116. continues with spine
    cranial meninges
  117. attachment to crista gali
    brain anchor
  118. seperates cerebellar hemispheres along midsagital line
    falx cerebelli
  119. provides nurishment, cushioning, protection to the brain and spinal cord
    cerebrospinal fluid
  120. name the layers superficial to deep of the cranial meninges
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • sub arachnoid space
    • pia mater
  121. passes through the foramen magnum
    medulla oblongata
  122. controls the autonomic centers
    medulla oblongata
  123. regulates rhythum
  124. uncoordinated motion
  125. tree of life
    arbor vitae
  126. final point for ascending sensory information to be relayed or projected to cerebral cortex
  127. acts as a filter, only passing on small portion of sensory information
  128. connects to pituitary gland
  129. cerebral superficial landmarks
    central sulcus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus
  130. On Old Olympus Towering Top A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops
    branches of cranial nerves
  131. branches of cranial nerves
    • On-olfactory
    • old- optic
    • olympus-ocularmotor
    • towering- trochlear
    • top- trigeminal
    • a-abducens
    • finn-facial
    • and-acoustic
    • german-glossopharyngeal
    • viewed- vagus
    • some-accessory
    • hops- hypoglossal
  132. fight or flight
    sympathetic division
  133. rest or digest
    parasympathetic division
  134. highly branched
  135. carries info toward other cells
  136. base or inital segment
    axon hillock
  137. plasma membrane of axon
  138. ends in synaptic terminal or terminal bulb
  139. blood brain barrier