Biology Test 2 Review .txt

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Shalamkm
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143245
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Biology Test 2 Review .txt
Updated:
2012-03-25 19:15:29
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Biology Test
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Biology Test 2
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  1. The study of microbes or microorganisms
    Microbiology
  2. Who is the father of Microbiology ?
    Louis Pasteur
  3. How did Pasteur prove biogenesis
    The Swan Neck Flask experiment
  4. What is killed in pasteurization ?
    Pathogens
  5. What vaccine did Pasteur develop?
    Rabies
  6. Do bacteria have a nucleus?
    No
  7. What shape is DNA in bacteria?
    circular
  8. What organelles do bacteria have?
    Bacteria have DNA, plasmids, and ribosomes
  9. What is the cell wall of bacteria made of?
    Peptidoglycan
  10. Name the Bacterial Shape: 00 00 00
    Diplococcus
  11. Name the shape: 00000000000
    Streptococcus
  12. Name the shape: 0000000
    00000
    0000
    000
    00
    0
    Staphlococcus
  13. Name the shape: -- -- --
    Bacillus
  14. Name the shape: ~ ~ ~ ~
    Spirillium
  15. List the characteristics of Gram +
    • Gram +
    • * Cell wall stains purple
    • * Thick layer surrounds cell membrane
    • * Affected by penicilin
  16. List the characteristics of Gram -.
    • Gram -
    • * Cell wall stains pink
    • * Thin layer surrounds cell membrane
    • * Affected by erythromycin
  17. What are the actions of penicilin and sulfa drugs on bacteria?
    On Gram + the penicilin disrupts cell wall synthesis. On Gram - the sulfa drugs disrupt ribosome function.
  18. What is the capsule made of and what is its function?
    The capsule is made of glycocalyx a (sugar coat). The capsule can adhere tightly to the cell wall or diffuse out into the environment. Also protect the bacteria from defenses of the host, and makes it more resistant.
  19. Describe the endospore.
    Dominant cells usually formed by bacilli and clostridium bacteria. Consists of DNA, some cytoplasm, and tough outer coating. Very resistant to conditions that would normally kill the cell. Reactivate when conditions are favorable.
  20. What is the function of the endospore? Which disease produces endospores that can last for years in the soil?
    The endospore is to protect the bacteria against conditions that would usually kill it. Anthrax is a disease that can last years in the soil.
  21. How do bacteria move?
    Bacteria use flagellum.
  22. What is the function of the pilus?
    it allows the bacteria to join together during conjugation.
  23. How do bacteria reproduce? Is this sexual or asexual reproduction?
    Asexually
  24. Describe conjugation in bacteria.
    the transfer of genetic material. Sex pillus joins two bacteria.
  25. How do bacteria carry out cellular respiration and how many ATP's do they generate from glucose?
    Bacteria make 40, net 38 ATP's from glucose.
  26. Define saprophyte.
    Any organism that lives on dead organic matter, as certain fungi and bacteria.
  27. What is meant by obligate and facultatie anaerobe?
    Obligate anarobes kive without O2. Facultative anarobes can ferment or go through respiration.
  28. Which eubacteria photosynthesize? What compounds are used to trap photons of light?
    Blue- green algae photosynthesize.
  29. What are pathogens?
    Pathogens are disease causing agents.
  30. Are most bacteria beneficial or pathogenic?
    beneficial
  31. What important role in nature do bacteria perform in the Carbon and Nitrogen cycles?
    Bacteria decompose dead organic matter, releasing CO2 into the atmosphere for photosynthesis. Four different groups cycle nitrogen from the atmosphere, to soil to plants for the production of proteins.
  32. Diagram and describe the actions of the four types of bacteria involved in the nitrogen cycle.
  33. What do the beneficial bacteria living in the large intestine of animals supply?
    The bacteria that live in the large intestines of animals manufacture B Vitamins and Vitamin K.
  34. What is the effect of prolonged use of antibiotics?
    Prolonged use of antibiotics can wipe out the good bacteria.
  35. What is the remedy of the effects of prolonged use of antibiotics?
    They can be replaced with sour milk products.
  36. Why is this cycle important to an ecosystem?
    ?
  37. Bactreia cell walls are made of_______
    murein

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