chapter 8

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chapter 8
2012-03-22 21:38:25

African Civilizaitons and the Spread of Islam
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  1. What was the rule of succession to the office of caliph during the Abbasid dynasty?
    There was no accepted rule of succession.
  2. How did the Shi'i react to the later Abbasid dynasty?
    Shi'i revolts and assassination attempts plagued the dynasty.
  3. What was the result of the civil wars following the death of al-Rashid?
    Candidates for the throne recognized the need to build up personal armies, often of slave soldiers.
  4. Which of the following was not a cause of the collapse of the agricultural economy during the Abbasid Caliphate?

    A. decline of the cities leading to falling demand for food supplies
    B. alienated the subjects.
    C. spiraling taxation
    D. Constant civil violence drained the treasury and
    E. failure of the irrigation systems
    pillaging by mercenary armies
    A. decline of the cities leading to falling demand for food supplies
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. What did the Abbasid creation of the harem imply?
    the increasing seclusion of women from public life
  6. What was the religious affiliation of the Seljuks?
  7. In what way was the conquest of Baghdad by the Seljuk Turks beneficial to Islam?
    The Turks restored the ability of the empire to meet the challenges of Fatimid Egypt and the Byzantine Empire.
  8. Who was Saladin?
    the commander responsible for the reconquest of the Crusader territories
  9. Which of the following statements concerning the Crusades is most accurate?

    A. The Crusaders succeeded because of the overwhelming superiority of western military technology.
    B. Jewish support for the Christian Crusaders guaranteed their victory in the Holy Land.
    C. Christian communities in the Holy Land greatly assisted in the Crusades.
    D. Crusader strongholds in the holy land were held until the eighteenth century.
    E. The Crusaders were successful only because of the political fragmentation of Islam and the element of surprise.
    E. The Crusaders were successful only because of the political fragmentation of Islam and the element of surprise.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What was the nature of cultural exchange during the Crusades?
    The Crusaders adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and Arabic numerals among other things.
  11. What was the trend of urbanization during much of the Abbasid era?
    Despite political disintegration and a decline in the agricultural economy, towns continued to grow rapidly.
  12. In what language was the Shah-Nama written?
  13. Which of the following was a literary figure during the Abbasid era?

    A. Muhammad ibn Qasim
    B. al-Ghazali
    C. Saladin
    D. Omar Khayyam
    E. Mahmud of Ghazni
    D. Omar Khayyam
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. What was the movement within Islam that emphasized mysticism and charismatic worship?
  15. Who were the religious scholars within Islam that stressed a more conservative interpretation of the law and religious texts?
  16. How did Islam and Hinduism differ?
    Islam stressed the egalitarianism of all believers, while Hinduism embraced a caste-based social system.
  17. What was the first region of India conquered by the Muslims in 711?
  18. Islam did not expand in Southeastern Asia until after the fall of what largely Buddhist trading empire?
  19. The third Abbasid caliph, __________, attempted unsuccessfully to reconcile moderate Shi'is to the Abbasid dynasty.
  20. The most famous of the Abbasid caliphs was __________, whose death led to civil wars over the succession.
  21. A regional splinter dynasty of the mid-tenth century, the __________ invaded and captured Baghdad and took the title of sultan.
  22. The __________ Turks were nomadic invaders from Central Asia who ruled in the name of the Abbasid caliphs from the mid-eleventh century.
  23. Christian knights invaded Palestine during the __________ and temporarily established small Christian kingdoms.
  24. The Muslim commander who reconquered the Christian enclaves in Palestine was __________.
  25. Written by Firdawsi, the __________ related Persian history from the creation to the Islamic conquests.
  26. The __________ were Islamic mystics who were largely responsible for the conversion of southeast Asia.
  27. The __________ were orthodox religious scholars within Islam who pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology.
  28. A brilliant Islamic theologian, __________ attempted to fuse Greek and Quranic traditions.
  29. The __________ were central Asian nomads who captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed the last Abbasid caliph.
  30. The great war commander of the Mongols was __________.
    Chinggis Khan
  31. The Arab general who conquered Sind and added it to the Umayyad Empire was __________.
    Muhammad ibn Qasim
  32. The Indian system of mathematical notation was known as __________ and was utilized in two scientific revolutions.
    Arabic numerals
  33. The ruler who repeatedly raided northwest India in the early 11thcentury was Mahmud of __________.
  34. The ruler who established an independent Muslim kingdom with its capital at Delhi was __________.
    Qutb-ud-din Aibak
  35. __________ was the Indian ritual that required the immolation of the living widows of deceased males.
  36. In response to the Islamic challenge, Hindus placed greater emphasis on __________ cults that stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and gods or goddesses.
  37. The fifteenth-century Muslim mystic who attempted to play down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam was __________.
  38. __________ was a Buddhist trading empire that controlled trade through the Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra.
  39. The most powerful trading city on the mainland of Malaya was __________.
  40. The most powerful trading state on the north of Java was __________ from where Islam was disseminated to other ports.
  41. Between 800 and 1500, as the frequency and intensity of contact with the outside world increased, what was the most significant impact on sub-Saharan Africa?
    the arrival of Islam
  42. State something accurate concerning the universality of religion in Africa.
    There was no universal religion in Africa, but both Christianity and Islam found adherents.
  43. Stateless societies in Africa were
    organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority.
  44. What was the function of secret societies in African culture?
    Because their membership cut across lineage divisions, they acted to maintain stability within the community and diminish clan feuds.
  45. The grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara that served as a point of exchange between the forests of the south and North Africa was called the
  46. What kingdom arose in the Sudan following the decline of Ghana in 1076?
  47. What was the geographical location of the empire of Mali?
    between the Niger and Senegal Rivers
  48. Which of the following monarchs was referred to as Mali's "Lion Prince?"
  49. Juula were
    African traders associated with the Mali Empire.
  50. Which of the following was one of the major "port" cities of the Mali Empire?
  51. Specialists who mastered the oral traditions of the Malinke and by knowing the past were considered excellent advisors to the kings were called
  52. Sunni Ali was responsible for the creation of what African Empire?
  53. What accounted for the downfall of Songhay?
    invasion by a Moroccan Muslim army equipped with firearms
  54. How did contact with the Muslim world affect the African slave trade?
    With the Muslim conquests of North Africa and commercial penetration to the south, slavery became a more widely diffused phenomenon and the slave trade developed rapidly.
  55. Zenj was the Arabic term for
    the East African coast
  56. What was typical of the African societies not affected by either Islam or Christianity?
    lack of systems of writing
  57. Which of the following regions was typified by city-state organization?
  58. African societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power were __________ societies.
  59. __________ was the Arabic word for eastern North Africa.
  60. __________ was the Arabic word for western North Africa.
  61. The __________ were the first Berber puritanical reform movement that moved southward against African kingdoms of the savanna.
  62. The __________ were the second Berber puritanical reform movement that penetrated into sub-Saharan Africa.
  63. The Christian __________ kingdom developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela.
  64. The __________ was the extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara.
  65. Taken as a whole, the __________ states included Mali and Songhay and all of those kingdoms that developed between the Takrur and Senegal Rivers on the west and the Gao and Niger Rivers on the east.
  66. __________ broke away from Ghana in the thirteenth century and established an empire between the Senegal and Niger.
  67. Malinke merchants, __________, formed small partnerships to carry out trade throughout the Mali empire.
  68. The "Lion Prince" of Mali was __________, the monarch responsible for the unification of the Mali state.
  69. Professional oral historians or __________ served as keepers of traditions and advisors to the Mali kings.
  70. Two of the most significant "port" cities of Mali were Jenne and __________, which lay just off the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River.
  71. The successor state to Mali was the independent kingdom of __________ that formed under a Berber dynasty.
  72. Under a dynamic leader, __________, the empire of Songhay was formed.
    Sunni Ali
  73. Under the rule of __________ the Great Songhay extended its boundaries until it dominated the central Sudan by the mid-sixteenth century.
    Muhammad the Great
  74. The normal patrilineal customs of Islam were outlined in the __________ or Islamic law.
  75. The Arabic term for the East African coast was __________.
  76. The string of urbanized trading ports including Mogadishu, Mombassa, Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, and Zanzibar shared the common Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced __________ language.
  77. The Arabic traveler and commentator __________ described African societies and cultures in his travel accounts.
    Ibn Batuta
  78. The change from slow to rapid population growth often associated with the process of industrialization is referred to as the __________.
    demographic transition
  79. The __________ culture featured a highly developed art style that flourished between 500 B.C.E. and 200 C.E.
  80. The __________ city-states developed in northern Nigeria ca. 1200 C.E.
  81. __________ was a city-state founded among the Edo people in the fourteenth century by Ewuare the Great.
  82. By the late fifteenth century the Kingdom of __________ on the lower Congo River was flourishing around its capital at Mbanza Kongo.
  83. A Bantu confederation of Shona-speaking peoples located between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, __________ featured royal courts built of stone that gave the kingdom its name.
    Great Zimbabwe