A&P Urinary (Notes)

Card Set Information

Author:
lecaly
ID:
143256
Filename:
A&P Urinary (Notes)
Updated:
2012-03-29 23:02:58
Tags:
Urinary Notes
Folders:

Description:
A&P Urinary (Notes)
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user lecaly on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Which kidney is lower than the other and why?
    the right kidney is slightly lower than the left due to liver placement
  2. What percentage of total mass of the kidney is needed for survival?
    only 25% of the total mass of the kidney is needed for survival
  3. List the functions of the kidneys
    they remove metabolic waste material from the blood in the form of urine

    the kidneys keep body fluids in proper consistency and composition

    they regulate acid/base ratio in blood and body

    regulate blood volume

    increase blood pressure at anytime of system shock
  4. FYI

    regarding structure

    approximate location of the kidneys

    amount of blood being filtered

    amont of urine produced
    when sliced, the kidney will show structures that can be readily identified

    the kidneys are approximately located by the paired set of the #12 ribs

    about 150-180 liters (45 gallons) of blood are filtered by the kidneys in 24 hrs

    1-1.8 liters of urine is produced (about 1 mL/min)
  5. As far as gross structure is concerned, what shape do kidneys have?
    bean shape
  6. Perirenal fat pad
    adipose tissue surrounding renal capsule
  7. Renal capsule
    transparent fibrous membrane closely attached to the surface of the kidney
  8. Cortex
    outer portion of the kidney

    paler in color when compared to the medulla

    contains most of the microscopic tubule

    contains blood supply
  9. Medulla
    inner portion of the kidney

    darker in color when compared to the cortex

    contains the renal pyramids which are separated by columns of Bertini/renal columns
  10. Calyx
    cup-like cavities

    these receive the renal pyramids

    they open into the renal pelvis

    plural word for them is calyces
  11. Renal pelvis
    all of the calyces joined together

    located in the renal sinus

    the expanded beginning of the vreter in the medial portion of the kidney
  12. Hilum
    indentation of tissue on the medial border where the vessels enter the structure
  13. Tubules
    thousands of microscopic tubes

    they collect the urine by filtration

    after filtration they transport it to the collecting ducts
  14. Nephron
    this is the functional unit pattern
  15. List all of the nephron components
    glomerular

    proximal tubule

    loop of henle (nephronic loop)

    distal tube

    renal artery and vein (blood supply)
  16. Glamerulus
    capillary network where filtration takes place in the blood

    coiled tuft of capillaries

    these are found inside of Bowman's capsule
  17. Bowman's capsule
    double wall chamber surrounding the glomerulus

    located in the cortex

    lined with podocytes which assist with urine filtration

    looks like an onion
  18. Ureters
    paired tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

    10-12 inches in length

    1/4 inch in diameter
  19. What is the function of the ureters?

    Through what movement do they function?
    they are a passageway for urine to move from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

    they functions via peristalsis
  20. Where are the ureters located?
    they are a continuation of the renal pelvis

    they terminate in the posterior surface of the urinary bladder
  21. List the three layers that make up the ureters
    epithelium

    muscularis

    fibrous connective
  22. What is the purpose of the epithelium layer in the ureter?

    Is it the inner, middle or outer layer?

    What shape are the cells found in it?
    to lubricate

    it is the inner layer of mucous membrane

    transitional cells: columnar to flat
  23. What is the purpose of the muscularis layer in the ureter?

    Is it the inner, middle or outer layer?
    to help with the perastaltic movement

    it is the middle layer of smooth muscle
  24. What is the purpose of the fibrous connective layer of the ureter?

    Is it the inner, middle or outer layer?
    to help with support

    it is the outer layer
  25. What is lithotripsy?
    A treatment, typically using ultrasound shock waves, by which a kidney stone or other calculus is broken into small particles that can be passed out by the body
  26. Urinary bladder
    pyramid in shape

    a hollow muscular organ

    it acts as a resevoir for urine

    it has three openings
  27. What is the maximum storage capacity of the urinary bladder?

    What is the normal output of urine in a 24 hour period?
    up to 1,000 ml or urine

    1-2 liters
  28. Where is the urinary bladder located?
    it is posterior to the pubic symphysis

    freely moveable

    held in position by the peritoneum and fascia
  29. List the three openings of the urinary bladder
    ureters

    urethra

    trigone
  30. Ureters as an opening to the urinary bladder
    two flap openings mdae of mucosa folds
  31. Urethra as an opening to the urinary bladder
    it is guarded by internal and external sphincter muslces
  32. Trigone as an opening to the urinary bladder
    area of bladder going into the urethra

    it does not contain rugae
  33. List the three layers that make up the urinary bladder
    epithelium

    muscularis

    serous
  34. The epithelium layer in the urinary bladder is made up of?

    Is it the inner, middle or outer layer?

    What shape are the cells found in it?
    mucous

    inner

    transitional cells: columnar to flat
  35. The muscularis layer urinary bladder is made up of?

    Is it the inner, middle or outer layer?
    smooth mucle

    middle (?)
  36. What is the third layer (not epithelium or muscularis) of the urinary bladder composed of?

    Is it the inner, middle or outer layer?

    What does it attach to?
    serous

    outer

    it attaches to the reritoneum
  37. Urethra
    a tube or duct which carries urine out of the body
  38. How long is the urethra in males?

    List the two component layers
    about 8 inches in length

    inner mucous layer and submucous layer
  39. How long is the urethra in females?

    List the three component layers
    about 1.5 inches in length

    inner mucous layer, submucous layer, outer muscular layer
  40. What is the function of the urethra in males?
    it is a passageway for urine and semen from the reproductive system
  41. What is the function of the urethra in females?
    is it a passageway for urine
  42. In males, where is the urethra located?
    from the urinary bladder to the head of the penis
  43. In females, where is the urethra located?
    from the urinary bladder to the vulva (outside opening)
  44. Urination
    act of expelling urine from the bladder

    aka voiding

    aka micturition
  45. Excretion
    elimination of waste products from the body
  46. Excreta
    waste products

    substances excreted
  47. Reasbsorption
    solutes being replaced back into the tubule
  48. Components of the male reproductive system
    testes

    epididymis

    ductus deferens

    spermatic cord

    seminal vesicles

    ejaculatory ducts

    urethra

    prostate gland

    external genitalia
  49. Testes
    male gonad

    orchis
  50. What is the function of the testes?
    to produce spermatozoa

    to produce hormone: testosterone
  51. Where are the testes located?

    What are they suspended by?
    in the scrotum

    suspended by the spermatic cord
  52. Tunica albuginea
    this is fibrous connective tissue

    it surrounds each testis
  53. Seminiferous tubules
    this is germinating tissue

    it produces spermatozoa and hormones

    1 to 4 tubules located in each lobule

    lobules are found throughout the testis
  54. Rete testis
    network of tubules carrying sperm from the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis
  55. Spermatogenesis
    production of spermatozoa

    exocrine
  56. Hormone production in the testes
    testosterone

    secondary male sex characteristic

    endocrine through the interstitial cells of the testes (cells of Leydig)
  57. Epididymis
    first part of the male duct system

    about 20 feet long if uncoiled
  58. Where is the epidydymis located?
    it is superiorly, then posterior and lateral aspect of each testicle
  59. What is the function of the epididymis?
    it stores and matures spermatozoa
  60. About how long do sperm take to move through the epididymis?
    about 20 days
  61. Ductus deferens
    a tube or duct

    aka seminal ducts

    aka vas deferens
  62. What is the function of the ductus deferens?

    How is this function achieved?
    it is a passageway for sperm to the urethra

    through peristaltic movement
  63. Where is the ductus deferens located?
    in the spermatic cord

    from the epididymis upward into the pelvic cavity to the urethra at the prostate gland
  64. List the three contents of the spermatic cord

    ________________ bundle

    ________________ tissue

    Seminal ________/ductus deferens
    vascular

    connective

    duct
  65. What does the vascular bundle found in the spermatic cord contain?

    arteries, _________, lymphatic vessels, and __________
    veins, nerves
  66. Seminal vesicles
    paired structure located at the base of the urinary bladder

    joins ductus deferens to form ejaculatory duct
  67. What do the seminal vesicles produce and what percentage?
    they produce fluid volume of semen

    about 60% of it
  68. List what the seminal vesicles secrete and why:

    Sugar, vitamin _, and other subtances

    for _________ and nourishment of sperm
    C

    motility
  69. Ejaculatory ducts
    these discharge semen into the urethra at the prostate gland
  70. Urethra: contains three divisions

    pro______

    membranous

    pen___ (spongy)
    prostatic

    penile
  71. Where is the urethra located?
    from the base of the urinary bladder to the head of the penis

    this is the terminal part of the male duct system
  72. What is the function of the urethra?
    it is a dual passageway for urine and reproductive fluid (semen)

    urination

    ejaculation
  73. Can urination and ejaculation occur at the same time in males?
    never! unless there is a pathological reason for it :P
  74. Prostate gland
    glandular tissue to produce prostate fluid

    conical body about the size of a chestnut
  75. Where is the prostate gland located?
    inferior to the urinary bladder surrounding its neck and the first division of the urethra
  76. What is the function of the prostate gland?
    to produce alkaline prostate fluid which is part of the semen

    it assists in the motility of sperm
  77. Bulbourethral glands
    they are the size of a pea

    they assist in the production of alkaline fluid to clean the male urethra and female vagina prior to sperm release

    formerly called Cowper's gland
  78. Scrotum
    pouch-like structure contains testes

    osched (root word)
  79. Where is the scrotum located?
    behind the penis
  80. Penis
    spongy tissue/cavernous tissue called erectile tissue

    it fills with blood during erection

    priapus (old term)

    aka phallus
  81. Glans penis
    enlarged tip
  82. Prepuce
    foreskin
  83. Where is the penis located?
    it is suspended from the front and sides of the pelvic arch
  84. What is the function of the penis?
    male organ of copulation

    carries urine out of the body

    carries semen out of the body
  85. So...again, can urine and semen come out of the penis at the same time?
    eww, no :P
  86. Ovaries
    oval in shape

    size of an almond

    the graafian follicle, corpus luteum and follicular are found here

    paired organs

    aka female gonads
  87. Where are the ovaries located?
    upper pelvic cavity

    either side of the uterus

    attached to the lateral walls of the pelvis by suspensory ligaments

    • attached to the uterus by ovarian ligaments
    • anteriorly held by broad ligament of the peritoneum
  88. Graafian follicle
    vesicle-like space where ova develop
  89. Corpus luteum
    normal ruptured follicle formed after ovulation

    leaves scar

    produces hormones

    normal degenerates
  90. Follicular
    most common form

    failure of the graafian follicle to rupture

    ovum degenerates forming fluid into follicle forming cyst
  91. What is the function of the ovaries?
    oogenesis

    hormone production
  92. Oogenesis
    development of oocyte

    aka ova

    aka gametes
  93. How many oocytes will develop in reproductive lifetime?

    The number produced is more than necessary (exocrine)
    350-500 (yikes!!)
  94. List the hormones produced in the ovaries
    estrogen

    progesterone

    relaxin (endocrine)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview