march 22 micro notes

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Author:
andreathors16
ID:
143258
Filename:
march 22 micro notes
Updated:
2012-03-29 20:02:16
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microbiology
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antibiotics
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  1. quinine is the cure for
    malaria
  2. willow bark is for treating
    fever
  3. ehrlich
    stained bacteria, led to ideas for chemotherapy
  4. Fleming observed
    the effect of penicillium on staphylococcus
  5. Flory and Chain developed
    penicillin and clincally tested it.
  6. inhibiting cell wall synthesis
    • bacteria have peptidoglycan in their cell wall and penicillin prevents peptidoglycan synthesis thus weakening the cell wall resulting in lysis.
    • very little toxicity for host (human) cells.
  7. inhibition of protien sysnthesis
    • eukaryotic cells have 80S ribosome
    • prokaryotic cells 70 S ribosome
    • mitochondria also has 70S ribosome.
  8. injuring plasma membrane
    • changes in permeabilty
    • amphotericin B miconazole- fungal
    • polymixin B- bacteria
  9. inhibition of Nucleic acid synthesis
    • effects DNA and mRNA
    • rifampin and quinolones
    • limitied utility beucase essential role in pro and euk
  10. inhibiting sysnthesis of essential metabolites
    • PABA is an essential cofactor used by bacteria to sythesize folic acid (vitamin functuons as a coenzyme in synthesis of nucleic acid)
    • sufanilmaided
  11. penicillin G/V
    • inhibit cell wall synthesis (pepdiglycogen)
    • against gram + bacteria
    • injection/oral
  12. ampicillin
    • semisynthetic penicillin
    • extened spectrum, gram+
    • cell wall synthesis inhibitor
  13. monobactam
    • has only one ring instead of b-lactam double ring.
    • effects gram - bacteria
    • cell wall synthesis inhibitor
  14. vancomycin
    • cell wall synthisis inhibitor
    • glycopeptide
    • penicillinase resistant
    • against gram+
  15. cephalosporins
    • cell wall synthesis
    • similar to penicillin
    • slight difference in b-lactam ring
    • bacteria develop b lactamase that inactivates them
  16. bacitracin
    • cell wall synthesis
    • against gram + bacteria
    • topical
  17. isoniazid
    • cell wall synthesis
    • inhibits synthesis of mycolic acid of cell wall
    • tuberculosis
  18. ethambutol
    • cell wall synthesis - tuberculosis
    • inhibits incorporation of myolic acid into cell wall
  19. amyloglycosides- streptomycin
    • protien synthesis
    • alternative to penicillin
  20. -neomycin
    topical use, broad spectrum
  21. -gentamicin
    • protien synthesis
    • broad spectrum
  22. tetracyclines
    • broad spectrum
    • animal feed additives
    • protien synthesis
  23. chloramphenicol
    • protien syntheis
    • broad spectrum potentially toxic
  24. erythromycin
    alternative to penicillin
  25. polymyxin B
    • plasma membrane
    • topical and gram - bacteria
  26. rifampin
    • Nucleic acid
    • inhibits synthesis of mRNA
    • treat tuberculosis
  27. quinolones and fluorquinoles
    • nucleic acid
    • inhibit DNA synthesis
    • braod specturm- UTI gram+ bacteria
  28. sulfonamides
    • esential metabolites
    • broad spectrum and combination is widley used

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