chapter 22

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chapter 22
2012-03-22 21:56:53

Asian Transition in an Age Global Change
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  1. Europeans used their sea power to control commerce in all the following products except
  2. What nation was responsible for opening the Indies to Europeans?
  3. What market did the Europeans first discover that they possessed little of value in the markets of the Eastern sea trading network?
  4. In which of the Asian manufacturing zones were paper, porcelain, and silks major products?
  5. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the nature of the Asian trading network?

    A. There were four great manufacturing centers, or zones.
    B. The islands on the periphery of the major empires were important, because they supplied raw materials to the manufacturing zones.
    C. While there was some exchange of goods between the major empires, the other island regions of Southeast Asia were never incorporated into the commercial system.
    D. Trade within the network was limited to regional exchange, with no products being shipped over long distances.
    E. Raw materials such as spices were valuable items of trade within the system, but manufactured products were not exchanged.
    B. The islands on the periphery of the major empires were important, because they supplied raw materials to the manufacturing zones.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following statements concerning the organization of trade in the Asian sea network is most accurate?
    There was no central control, and force was usually absent from commercial exchanges.
  7. What was the economic policy that encouraged the Portuguese to utilize force in entering the Asian trade network?
  8. Over whose forces did the Portuguese win the sea battle of Diu in 1509?
    a combined Egyptian and Indian force
  9. Which of the following was a fortified trading port established by the Portuguese in the early sixteenth century?

    A. Goa
    B. Canton
    C. Malawa
    D. Batavia
    E. Deshima
    A. Goa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Despite having captured Malacca, why did the Dutch move their trading headquarters in the spice islands to Batavia?
    Batavia was closer to the sources of spices.
  11. What happened to the English attempts to enter the spice trade?
    The English were forced to fall back on the cotton textile trade of India.
  12. What Jesuit missionary was responsible for creating the strategy of converting Hindu elites as a means of achieving mass conversions?
    Robert di Nobili
  13. In which of the following areas did the Christian missionaries enjoy the most lasting success?
  14. Which reform was introduced by the first Ming emperor?
    The position of the scholar-gentry within the bureaucracy was restored.
  15. Which of the following European products had a significant impact on the Chinese economy during the Ming era?
    maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts
  16. What social group benefited most from the expansion of trade during the Ming era?
    the merchants
  17. Why did the Chinese abandon the commercial voyages of the Zhenghe expeditions?
    There was little of value for the Chinese to import, and the voyages were expensive to carry out.
  18. Which of the following was NOT a policy imposed as a result of Japanese isolation in the seventeenth century?

    A. Foreign traders were confined to the island of Deshima in Nagasaki Bay.
    B. Neo-Confucian philosophy gave way to the influence of thinkers who championed the school of "National Learning."
    C. The Japanese elite abandoned all contact with Western learning and technological advance.
    D. Christianity was banned and Christians were persecuted.
    E. None of the answers are correct.
    C. The Japanese elite abandoned all contact with Western learning and technological advance.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of the following was responsible for the reestablishment of the Shogunate in Japan?

    A. Nobunaga
    B. Tokugawa Ieyasu
    C. Hiaru Ashikag
    D. Toyotomi Hideyoshi
    E. Ticaru Hideoshiwa
    B. Tokugawa Ieyasu
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The Asian sea trading network consisted of three zones: the Arab zone selling glass, carpet, and tapestry; India selling cotton textiles; and __________ exporting paper, porcelain, and silk.
  21. Although the Chinese had ships that were larger and in some respects better built, none of the Asian peoples possessed ocean-going vessels that were as swift and maneuverable as the Portuguese __________.
  22. In 1510 the Portuguese captured __________ on the western India coast.
  23. The Portuguese fortress and port on the Malayan peninsula at __________ served as a transhipment point for spices.
  24. The port of __________ at the southern end of the Persian Gulf granted the Portuguese an entry point into the Arab zone of the Asian sea trading network.
  25. The Dutch captured the Portuguese fortress at Malacca and built a new one of their own in 1620 at __________, on the island of Java.
  26. The conquest of the northern Philippine island of __________ was facilitated by the fact that the animistic peoples inhabiting them lived in small states the Spanish could subjugate one by one.
  27. The repeated failure of Spanish expeditions to conquer the southern Philippine island of __________ was due to the fact that it was ruled by a single kingdom whose Muslim rulers were determined to resist Christian dominance.
  28. In India from the 1540s onward, __________ and his coworkers brought initial Christian conversions in the tens of thousands.
    Francis Xavier
  29. In the early 1600s an Italian Jesuit, __________, attempted to Christianize Hindus by first converting elite groups.
    Robert di Nobili
  30. Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty, declared himself the __________ emperor in 1368.
  31. Europeans were only permitted to trade in two places, __________ and Canton.
  32. Ming __________ such as The Water Margin, Monkey, and The Golden Lotus were recognized as classics and continue to set the standard for Chinese prose literature.
  33. The third Ming emperor, __________ launched a series of expeditions that had no precedent in Chinese commercial history.
  34. Between 1405 and 1423 a Chinese court eunuch named __________ led seven major expeditions overseas.
  35. Brilliant Jesuit scholars, such as __________ and Adam Schall, spent most of their time in the Chinese Imperial City correcting calendars, forging cannon, fixing clocks, and demonstrating the accuracy of their instruments.
    Matteo Ricci
  36. The last Ming emperor, __________, hanged himself rather than face the ignominy of capture.
  37. The Jurchens, or __________, from the region to the northeast of the Chinese empire, not the Mongols, seized power following the fall of the Ming dynasty.
  38. __________, the first of a series of remarkable Japanese military leaders, vaulted into prominence in the sixteenth century in the struggles for power among the daimyo lords.
  39. Following the death of Nobunaga, his ablest general, __________, moved quickly to punish the traitors and to renew the drive to break the power of the daimyos.
    Toyotomi Hideyoshi
  40. In 1603 __________ was granted the title of shogun by the emperor, an act that inaugurated two centuries of his family's rule.
    Tokugawa Ieyasu
  41. By the 1640s only a limited number of Dutch and Chinese ships were allowed to call in Japan at the small island of __________ in Nagasaki Bay.
  42. The school of "__________" laid great emphasis on Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Chinese imports like Confucianism.
    National Learning