Psych 19 Ch. 7

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  1. Piaget's Theory
    The Preoperational Stage
  2. Vygotsky's Theory
    Sociocultural Theory
  3. Limitations of Preoperational Thought
    • -Cannot perform mental operations
    • -Egocentrism
    • -Animistic Thinking
    • -Lack hierarchical classification
  4. Evaluation of Piaget
    • -Many experts refute preoperational stage idea
    • -Piaget's stages are too strict
    • -Need flexible stage approach
    • -Piaget assumes abrupt change
    • -Most experts believe change is gradual
  5. Evaluation of Vygotsky's Theory
    • -Helps explain cultural diversity in cognition
    • -Emphasizes importance of teaching
    • -Focus on language deemphasizes observation, other learning methods
    • -Says little about biological contributions to cognition
    • -Vague in explanation of change
  6. Preoperational stage
    Spans from 2 to 7 years. The most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in representational or symbolic activity.
  7. Sociodramatic play
    Make believe with others that is under way around age 2 and increases rapidly during the next few years.
  8. Dual Representation
    Viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol.
  9. Egocentrism
    Failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own
  10. Animistic thinking
    the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings and intentions.
  11. Centration
    Focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.
  12. Irreversibility
    Inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting poing
  13. Hierachical Classification
    Organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences.
  14. Private speech
    Self-directed speech that children use to plan and guide their own behavior.
  15. Scaffolding
    Adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
  16. Guided Participation
    A broader concept than scaffolding. Refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication.
  17. Metacognition
    "Thinking about thought" A coherent set of ideas about mental activities
  18. Ordinality
    Order relationships between quantities
  19. Cardinality
    The last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set
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Psych 19 Ch. 7
Psych 19 Flashcards
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