chapter 17

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chapter 17
2012-03-23 00:52:55

The Transformation of the West 1450~1750
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  1. In characterizing the period from 1450 to 1750 in the West, which of the following statements is NOT accurate?

    A. The popular outlook, including ideas about personality and family as well as concepts of nature, had shifted.
    B. What was once an agricultural society was becoming a predominantly manufacturing economy.
    C. Government powers had expanded.
    D. Science came to form the centerpiece of Western intellectual life.
    E. The fall of the Roman Empire filled this era with backwardness and disease.
    B. What was once an agricultural society was becoming a predominantly manufacturing economy.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. State something about the Renaissance.
    The Renaissance was built on a more commercialized economy.
  3. Who was associated with the Italian Renaissance?
    Niccolo Machiavelli
  4. What accounts, in part, for the decline of the Italian Renaissance?
    the invasion of the peninsula by France and Spain
  5. What was one of the primary differences between the Northern and Italian Renaissances?
    Northern humanists focused more on religion than their Italian counterparts.
  6. Who was responsible for the invention of movable type in the West?
    johannes Gutenberg
  7. In the 16th century, at what age did most Europeans marry?
  8. Which of the following was not associated with the founding of a Protestant church in the 16th century?

    A. Henry VIII
    B. Jean Calvin
    C. Martin Luther
    D. Anglicans
    E. Ignatius Loyola
    E. Ignatius Loyola
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Describe the nature of popular support for Luther's religious reform movement.
    German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories.
  10. The center of the Protestant movement begun by Jean Calvin was located in
  11. The civil wars of religion in France were ended in 1598 with the declaration of toleration of Protestantism in the
    Edict of Nantes.
  12. What were the results of the Thirty Years' War?
    • Some princely states in Germany chose one religion, some another.
    • The treaty that ended the war granted political independence to the Protestant Netherlands.
    • It reduced German prosperity and power for a full century.
  13. What was a characteristic of the commercal revolution of the 16th century?
    Monopolies of trade with specific regions or over specific commodities were established.
  14. Commodities that many European peasants and artisans around 1600 ordinarily owned included
  15. Who was the author of the scientific treatise, Principia Mathematica?
    Isaac Newton
  16. Louis XIV of France was associated with the style of government called
    absolute monarchy
  17. Which state stood apart from the trend toward absolute monarchy in the 17th century and retained a parliamentary regime?
  18. What monarch was associated with the establishment of enlightened despotism in Prussia in the middle of the 18th century?
    Frederick the Great
  19. What Enlightenment social scientist advocated that government avoid regulation of the economy in favor of individual initiative and market forces?
    Adam Smith
  20. What crop was introduced to Europe in the 17th century and substantially improved the food supply?
  21. The author of the Prince, __________, emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power.
    Niccolo Machiavelli
  22. Renaissance culture stressed themes of __________horizontala focus on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor.
  23. The __________ focused in France, the Low Countries, Germany and England, opened up after 1450.
    Northern Renaissance
  24. Printing was introduced in the 15th century, as the German __________ invented movable type.
    Johannes Gutenberg
  25. In 1517 a German monk named __________ nailed a document containing 95 theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenberg.
    Martin Luther
  26. The general wave of religious dissent against the Catholic Church was called __________.
  27. In England Henry VIII set up an __________ church, initially to challenge papal attempts to enforce his first marriage.
  28. __________, a Frenchman who established a base in the Swiss city of Geneva, insisted on God's predestination as a basic religious principle.
    Jean Calvin
  29. Under a __________, Church councils revived Catholic doctrine and refuted key Protestant tenets.
    Catholic Reformation
  30. A new religious order, the __________, became active in politics, education and missionary work in Asia and the Americas during the 16th century.
  31. The French civil wars of religion ended with the granting of tolerance to Protestants through the __________ in 1598.
    edict of Nantes
  32. In 1618 the __________ broke out, pitting German Protestants and allies such as Lutheran Sweden against the Holy Roman Emperor, backed by Spain.
    Thirty Years' War
  33. The __________ ended the Thirty Years War in 1648 and agreed to the concept of territorial tolerance.
    Treaty of Westphalia
  34. Growing commercialization created the beginnings of a new __________ in the West, people without access to wealth-producing property.
  35. The __________ persecution of the 16th century reflected new resentments against the poor and new uncertainties about religious truth
  36. The period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations culminating in the 17th century was called the __________ revolution.
  37. A Polish monk, __________, used astronomical observation and mathematical calculation to disprove the belief that the earth was the center of the universe.
  38. The Italian __________ publicized Copernicus' discoveries while adding his own basic findings about the laws of gravity and planetary motion.
  39. The English physician __________ demonstrated the circular movement of the blood in animals with the heart as the central pump.
    John Harvey
  40. __________ established the importance of a skeptical review of all received wisdom, arguing that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.
    Rene Descartes
  41. __________ published his Principia Mathematica in 1687 and drew together various theories into a neat framework of natural laws.
    Issac Newton
  42. Some intellectuals held out a new conception of God called __________ arguing that while there might be a divinity its role was to set natural laws in motion, not to regulate them.
  43. The reigning economic theory, called __________, held that governments should promote the internal economy in order to improve tax revenues and to limit imports from other nations.
  44. The English civil wars produced a final political settlement in 1688 (the so-called __________) in which parliament won basic sovereignty over the king.
    Glorius Revolution
  45. In Prussia, __________, building on the military and bureaucratic organization of his predecessors, introduced greater freedom of religion while expanding the economic functions of the state.
    Frederick the Great
  46. The aftermath of the scientific revolution spilled over into a new movement known as the __________, centered particularly in France but with adherents throughout the Western world.
  47. The Scottish philosopher __________ set forth a number of invariable principles of economic behavior, based on the belief that people act according to their self-interest.
    Adam Smith
  48. A few feminist thinkers, like __________ in England, argued that new political rights and freedoms should extend to women.
    Mary Wollstonecraft