chapter 16

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chapter 16
2012-03-23 01:06:13

World Economy
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  1. After 1450 the West
    controlled a growing volume of international trade.
  2. The initiative for Western exploration and conquest came from the kingdom of
  3. The Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator
    directed a series of expeditions along the African coast and also outward to the Azores.
  4. Vasco da Gama
    rounded the Cape of Good Hope and eventually sailed to India.
  5. The first Portuguese fleet to reach India sailed there in
  6. The Portuguese trading port and fortress established in India was
  7. Why did the initiative in early conquest and exploration pass to northern European nations in the later 16th century?
    The Dutch and British improved the design of oceanic vessels, producing faster ships than their Catholic rivals.
  8. The chief positive European contribution to the Americas as part of the "Colombian Exchange" was
    large domesticated animals.
  9. describe the impact of European conquest on the population of Native Americans.
    Native American population was devastated by the introduction of previously unknown European diseases.
  10. Whom did the Spanish defeat at the battle of Lepanto?
    The Ottoman Empire
  11. Why did Spanish fail to hold a position of dominance in world trade?
    Spain's internal economy and banking system were not sufficient to accommodate the bullion from the new world, and the Iberian nation lacked significant manufacturing capability.
  12. Where were the nations of the core region of the global trade network located?
    western Europe
  13. Which areas did have a predominantly coercive labor system?
    • eastern Europe
    • the soutern Atlantic colonies of North America
    • Latin America
  14. Make a statement concerning the relationship between Asian civilizations and the world commercial network of the 16th and 17th centuries.
    • Asian civilizations had ample political strength and economic sophistication to avoid dependent status.
    • China depended on extensive government regulation to keep European activities in check.
    • East Asia constituted the civilization that remained most fully and consciously external to the world economy.
  15. Describe the Japanese participation in the global trade network.
    The Japanese did display some openness to Christian missions and they were also fascinated by Western advances in gunnery and shipping.
  16. Who established the first Spanish colony on the American mainland?
    Vasco de Balboa
  17. Why was the Portuguese colony of Angola exceptional?
    The Portuguese pressed inland in Angola instead of simply establishing coastal fortresses.
  18. What impact did the Seven Years' War have on French colonial possessions?
    The French lost their colonies in India to the British.
  19. The Viking name given to the territories they settled in Greenland and North America was __________.
  20. A Portuguese prince, __________, directed a series of expeditions along the African coast and outward to islands such as the Azores.
    Henry the Navigator
  21. In the 15th century, Portuguese sailors ventured around the __________ planning to find India and to reach the African eastern coast.
    Cape of Good Hope
  22. The fleet of __________ reached India in 1498 with the aid of a Hindu pilot picked up in East Africa.
    Vasco da Gama
  23. The Portuguese established fortresses at Mozambique in Africa and __________ in India to control their trading empire.
  24. In 1492 the Italian navigator __________, sailing in the name of Ferdinand and Isabella, reached the Americas.
    Christopher Columbus
  25. A Spanish expedition under __________ set sail westward in 1519 and eventually sailed around the world.
    Ferdinand Magellan
  26. The Dutch and British __________ were semiprivate companies, formed by pooling merchant capital and amassing great fortunes in commerce in Asia.
    East India Companies
  27. The cultural interaction that took place with often disastrous consequences following the discovery of the Americas by Europeans is called the "__________."
    Colombian Exchange
  28. A Spanish-directed fleet inflicted a decisive defeat on the navy of the Ottoman Empire in the battle of __________ in 1571.
  29. Even in Japan, where a firm isolationist policy was launched after 1600, Dutch traders secured special access to the port of __________.
  30. Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from the world economy, controlled international banking and commercial services, and exported manufactured goods were called __________ nations
  31. The doctrine of __________ urged that a nation-state export as widely as possible in its own ships and not import goods from outside.
  32. In the Americas for many Indians and __________, people of mixed European and Indian blood, systems of estate management developed that exacted large amounts of labor.
  33. The rulers of India's new __________ empire in the 16th century were interested in some contact with Western traders.
  34. The first Spanish settlement on the American mainland was established in 1509 under the able adventurer, __________.
  35. The Dutch established a settlement called __________ in 1652 at the Cape of Good Hope to provide a coastal station for the Dutch sea-borne empire.
    Cape Colony
  36. Only after 1770 did the expanding Dutch __________ settlements directly conflict with the Bantu farmers, opening a long battle for control of southern Africa.
  37. Through negotiation with local Indian princes, the British East India Company gained a station at __________ that permitted access to the Ganges River valley.
  38. British and French rivalry over control of India culminated in outright warfare in 1744 during the __________.
    Seven Years' War
  39. The British gained the island of __________ off the mainland of India from the Dutch.
  40. The __________ colonies of Britain in North America differed from other settlements in that they operated their own assemblies and developed internal trade.
  41. The first settlements in __________ were launched by the French government under Louis XIV.
    New France
  42. Under the terms of the __________, that in 1763 settled the Seven Years War, France lost its colonies in North America, but regained its West Indian sugar islands.
    Treaty of Paris