chapter 15

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chapter 15
2012-03-23 01:13:43

The West and the Changing World Balance
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  1. What were the symptoms of the decline in the Arabic Caliphate by 1300?
    The decline of the Sufis
  2. What was the political state of the Middle East following the fall of the Abbasid Empire and the withdrawal of the Mongols?
    The emerging Ottoman Empire soon mastered most of the lands of the old caliphate plus the Byzantine corner.
  3. What Chinese dynasty was associated briefly with the establishment of state-sponsored international commerce?
  4. For how long did the Chinese government sponsor international commercial voyages in the fifteenth century?
    28 years
  5. Make a statement concerning the cessation of state-sponsored trade in China.
    In Chinese terms, it was the brief trading flurry that was unusual, not its cessation.
  6. What was a drawback to the West's emergence as a global power?
    • the attack on the Catholic Church, one of the organizing institutions of the West
    • lack of political coherence and organizing ability
    • economic crises among ordinary Europeans
    • recurring European famine
  7. What was the disease that accounted for the enormous loss of life in the fourteenth century?
    bubonic plague
  8. What features allowed Italy to emerge as the center of the early Renaissance?
    Italy had closer contacts with foreign scholars, particularly those in late Byzantium.
  9. Where were the two major regional monarchies that were established soon after 1400?
    Castile and Aragon
  10. Why did the West begin the exploration of new trade routes ca. 1400?
    Technological barriers that had been a problem previously were overcome.
  11. What is a common element of the Polynesian societies of Hawaii and New Zealand?
    lack of metallurgy
  12. After 1400 the Aztec and Inca empires
    ran into difficulties as a result of internal problems related to control of their dominions.
  13. The Americas and Polynesia still remain unaffected by the international exchange during the _______
  14. The __________ was a Turkic government established in Asia Minor and eventually spreading throughout the Middle East following the retreat of the Mongols.
    Ottoman Empire
  15. The __________ dynasty was established in China following the overthrow of the Mongol Yuan dynasty.
  16. The cultural and political movement that begin in Italy ca. 1400 and that created a literary and an artistic style with distinctly more secular priorities was called the __________.
  17. Two kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula, __________ pressed the reconquest of Spain from the Muslims.
    Castile and Aragon
  18. One of the major literary figures of the western Renaissance, __________ was an Italian author and humanist.
    Francesco Petrarch
  19. Two Genoese brothers who attempted to find a western route to the "Indies," the __________ disappeared in 1291.