chapter 19

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TOYOMAMA0118
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143295
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chapter 19
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2012-03-23 01:32:23
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Early Latin America
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  1. What are the characteristics of Iberian society?
    • emphasis on nobility
    • a professional bureaucracy
    • emphasis on patriarchal ideals
    • heavy urbanization
  2. Name practices that were extended to the Americas as a result of Portuguese commercial and colonial experience elsewhere.
    African Slavery
  3. What practice was originally part of Columbus's plans for the administration of the New World discoveries?
    fortified ports
  4. Encomiendas were
    grants of Indians for labor in Spanish colonies in the Americas.
  5. What man was an advocate of Indian rights?
    Bartolome de Las Casas
  6. The tremendous decline of the Indian population was matched by the rapid increase in
    European livestock.
  7. When the encomienda system began to fail, the Spanish government
    began to rely on Indian labor extracted through local officials, the mita.
  8. The Spanish commercial system with the Latin American colonies was organized around
    mining
  9. The greatest concentration of mercury was found at
    Huancavelica.
  10. Make statements concerning the agricultural system of Spanish America.
    • Colonists faced with declining Indian populations found landownership more attractive.
    • In places where large sedentary populations existed, Indian communal agriculture of traditional crops continued. Spanish America remained predominantly an agrarian economy.
  11. Make a statement concerning the organization of trade with the Americas.
    The Spanish evolved a convoy system composed of galleons that carried manufactured goods to the colonies and brought back bullion.
  12. In 1494 Spain and Portugal clarified the boundaries of their colonial possessions in the
    Treaty of Tordesillas.
  13. In its final form, the Spanish colonial government in Latin America was divided at first into two and later into four
    viceroyalties.
  14. In contrast to the Spanish colonies, Brazil's economy was initially devoted to
    estate agriculture
  15. By the end of the 17th century, slaves comprised approximately what proportion of the Brazilian population?
    one-half
  16. Make a statement concerning the Brazilian economy
    Competition from English, French, and Dutch plantations in the Caribbean undercut the Brazilian sugar industry.
  17. The patriarchal family was readily adapted to Latin America where large estates and grants of Indian laborers or __________ provided the framework for relations based on economic dominance.
    encomiendas
  18. After Columbus's original voyage in 1492, a return expedition the next year included colonists who established a colony on the island of __________.
    hispaniola
  19. The Dominican friar __________ initiated the struggle for justice for Native Americans in Spanish colonies.
    Bartolome de Las Casas
  20. In 1519 __________ led an expedition of some 600 men to the coast of Mexico.
    Hernan Cortes
  21. The Aztec emperor __________ was made a captive by Spanish invaders and then killed.
    Mocteezuma II
  22. __________ was built by the Spaniards on the ruins of Tenochtitlan as the capital of New Spain.
    Mexico City
  23. In 1532 __________ led his men to the conquest of the Inca empire.
    Francisco Pizarro
  24. Unlike the Spaniards in Mexico, when the Inca capital of Cuxco fell in 1533, the conquerors built their new capital of __________ closer to the coast.
    Lima
  25. Searching for the mythical cities of gold, __________ penetrated today's southwestern United States from 1540 to 1542.
    Vazquez de Coronado
  26. ________ conquered the Araucanian Indians of central Chile and set up the city of Santiago in 1541.
    Pedro de Valdivia
  27. __________ were holders of grants of Indian labor who could use the Indians as workers or tax them.
    Encomenderos
  28. In the sixteenth century the encomienda was gradually replaced by the __________, a system of labor drafts.
    mita
  29. The discovery of a mountain of mercury at __________ in Peru aided American silver production.
    Huancavelica
  30. Rural estates or __________ producing primarily for consumers in America became the basis of wealth and power for the local aristocracy in many regions.
    haciendas
  31. The treasure fleets of Spain were made possible by the development of large, heavily armed ships called __________.
    galleons
  32. The Treaty of __________ signed in 1494 by Spain and Portugal clarified the spheres of influence of the two nations.
    Tordesillas
  33. The Spanish empire became a great bureaucratic system built on a juridicial core and staffed to a large extent by __________.
    letrados
  34. The body of laws for the Indies was so large and varied that it took almost a century to complete a great law code, the __________.
    Recopilacion
  35. The king of Spain ruled through a __________ that issued the laws and advised him on all matters dealing with the American colonies.
    Council of the Indies
  36. Within the Indies, Spain created two __________ in the sixteenth century, one based on Mexico City and the other on Lima.
    viceroyalties
  37. The first official Portuguese landfall on the South American coast took place in 1500 when __________ stopped briefly on the Brazilian shore.
    Pedro Alvares Cabral
  38. Minor Portuguese nobles were given strips of land along the coast called __________ to colonize and develop.
    capitaincies
  39. __________, hardy backwoodsmen from Sao Paulo, had been exploring the interior of Brazil, capturing Indians, and searching for precious metals.
    Paulistas
  40. In 1695 gold strikes were made in Brazil in the mountainous region that came to be called __________.
    Minas Gerais
  41. __________, the port closest to the mines of Minas Gerais, became capital of Brazil in 1763.
    Rio de Janeiro
  42. Peoples of mixed origins were called the __________, and they constituted a large and troublesome population that was relegated to secondary status.
    castas
  43. __________ were people of Spanish blood who had been born in the New World.
    Creoles
  44. __________, moved by economic nationalism and a desire for strong centralized government, instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire.
    Charles III
  45. __________ spent six years in Mexico before returning to Spain to become Minister of the Indies and chief architect of reforms.
    Jose de Galvez
  46. The Bourbon reforms were paralleled in the Portuguese world during the administration of the __________, Portugal's authoritarian prime minister.
    Marquis of Pombal
  47. In New Granada popular complaints against the government's control of tobacco and liquor led to the widespread __________ revolt in 1781.
    Comenero
  48. In Peru a great Indian uprising took place under the leadership of Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui, __________.
    Tupac Amaru

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