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Erikson's Theory: Initiative versus guilt
Young children have a new sense of purposefulness. They are eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities with peers, and discover what they can do with the help of adults. They also make strides in conscience development.
Set of attibutes, abilities, attitudes and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is
Foundations of Self Concept
- Based on observable characteristics
- Typical emotions and attitudes
- Asserting rights to objects ("Mine!") helps define boundaries of self
Judgements we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements
For self esteem, feelings about those judgements include:
- -Global appraisal
- -Judgements of different aspects of self
unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
A child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior. At the highest level are two forms of true social interaction
Children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior.
More advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal, such as actng out a make-believe theme.
An adult helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others.
Involves removing children from the immediate setting.
Ex. By sending them to their rooms until they are ready to act appropriately.
Protect people's rights and welfare from two other types of rules and expectations (Social conventions and matters of personal choice)
Customs determined soley by consensus, such as table manners and politeness rituals (saying "please" and "thank you")
Matters of personal choice
Such as choice of friends, hairstyle and leisure activities, which do not violate rights and are up to the individual
Proactive (or instrumental) aggression
Children act to fulfill a need or desire - obtain an object, privilege, space, or social reward such as adult or peer attention - and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal.
Reactive (or hostile) Agression
An angry, defensive response to provocation or a blocked goal and is meant to hurt another person
Harms others through physical injury - pushing, hitting, kicking or punching others or destroying another's property
Harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing
Damages another's peer relationships through soical exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
Combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate
Authoritative child-rearing style
The most successful approach - involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques and appropriate autonomy granting
Authoritarian child-rearing style
Low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting
Behaviors that intrude on and manipulate children's verbal expression, individuality, and attachments to parents.
Permissive child-rearing style
warm and accepting but uninvolved. Permissive parents are either overindulging or inattentive and thus, engage in little control. Instead of gradually granting autonomy, they allow children to make many of their own decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so
Uninvolved child-rearing style
Combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy.