Psych 19 Ch. 8

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  1. Erikson's Theory: Initiative versus guilt
    Young children have a new sense of purposefulness. They are eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities with peers, and discover what they can do with the help of adults. They also make strides in conscience development.
  2. Self concept
    Set of attibutes, abilities, attitudes and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is
  3. Foundations of Self Concept
    • Based on observable characteristics
    • -appearance
    • -possessions
    • -behavior
    • Typical emotions and attitudes
    • Asserting rights to objects ("Mine!") helps define boundaries of self
  4. Self-esteem
    Judgements we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements
  5. For self esteem, feelings about those judgements include:
    • -Global appraisal
    • -Judgements of different aspects of self
  6. Nonsocial activity
    unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
  7. Parallel Play
    A child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior. At the highest level are two forms of true social interaction
  8. Associative Play
    Children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior.
  9. Cooperative Play
    More advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal, such as actng out a make-believe theme.
  10. Induction
    An adult helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others.
  11. Time out
    Involves removing children from the immediate setting.

    Ex. By sending them to their rooms until they are ready to act appropriately.
  12. Moral imperative
    Protect people's rights and welfare from two other types of rules and expectations (Social conventions and matters of personal choice)
  13. Social conventions
    Customs determined soley by consensus, such as table manners and politeness rituals (saying "please" and "thank you")
  14. Matters of personal choice
    Such as choice of friends, hairstyle and leisure activities, which do not violate rights and are up to the individual
  15. Proactive (or instrumental) aggression
    Children act to fulfill a need or desire - obtain an object, privilege, space, or social reward such as adult or peer attention - and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal.
  16. Reactive (or hostile) Agression
    An angry, defensive response to provocation or a blocked goal and is meant to hurt another person
  17. Physcial aggression
    Harms others through physical injury - pushing, hitting, kicking or punching others or destroying another's property
  18. Verbal aggression
    Harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing
  19. Relational aggression
    Damages another's peer relationships through soical exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
  20. Child-rearing styles
    Combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate
  21. Authoritative child-rearing style
    The most successful approach - involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques and appropriate autonomy granting
  22. Authoritarian child-rearing style
    Low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting
  23. Psychological control
    Behaviors that intrude on and manipulate children's verbal expression, individuality, and attachments to parents.
  24. Permissive child-rearing style
    warm and accepting but uninvolved. Permissive parents are either overindulging or inattentive and thus, engage in little control. Instead of gradually granting autonomy, they allow children to make many of their own decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so
  25. Uninvolved child-rearing style
    Combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy.
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Psych 19 Ch. 8
Psych 19 Ch. 8 Flashcards
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