History Notes

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History Notes
2012-03-23 07:53:49
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  1. Rupert's Land Purchase
    • - Vast territory owned by Hudson's Bay Company
    • -Employed trappers, hunters and aboriginals
    • -Three years after confederation, Canada purchased the land for 1.5 million. Company kept some farm land and trading post. It would officially be Canadian territory in December of 1869
  2. Problem
    • -Although there were a few tribes on the property
    • -Many already questioned if the HBC had the right to own the territory
    • -None of the people on the territory were consulted about the purchase
  3. Red River and the Métis
    • -The longest settlement was Red River with about 10,000 people. Modern day Winnipeg
    • - There were the Scottish, English, and Métis (European and strong French)-Majority
  4. Métis
    • Very independent and proud
    • -Called themselves Metis Nation
  5. Problems with the Metis and Canada
    • -There are 4 main reasons:·
    • Legal ownership of the land·
    • Re-organizing the land systems·
    • Railway·
    • No government representative
  6. #1- Legal Ownership
    • -Canadian government sent surveyors staking out the ground Métis people thought was theirs
    • -Metis thought they were getting taken over
    • -Metis had no ownership papers
  7. #2 - Re-organization of the Land
    • -Surveyors told the Métis the farmland should be re-organized into square plots
    • -The problem was the Métis had farms that were long strips so they had access to water
  8. #3- Railroad
    • -rumors that Canadian government was planning to run the railway through buffalo country
    • -Thus a lot of working, digging, and loud noise
  9. #4- No Government representatives
    • -Canada wasn't treating the Metis with respect
    • -Métis weren't considered citizens of Canada
    • -Metis did not have a government to help them
  10. Métis Take Charge: Louis Riel
    • -Leader: Louis Reil
    • - Riel formed the National Committee of the Metis in 1869- Purpose: Best was to protest the Metis land and Culture
  11. Who was Louis Riel
    • -Born into a settlement, trained as a lawyer in Montreal
    • - Very opposed to confederation
    • -Strong supporter of French rights
  12. What NCM decided to do
    • - Riel and Metis take over Fort Gary, Trading post of the HBC
    • - To replace HBS rule, the committee decided to take things to another level by declaring themselves as on official provincial government
    • - Seen as an act of rebellion
  13. Purpose of Provincial Government
    • -Showed the government that the Metis meant business
    • -that they would be taken seriously
  14. Opposition to Provincial Government: The Thomas Scott Affair
    • -English settlers from Ontario travelled to the Red River
    • -Protested and rioted against the provincial government
    • -Rioters are jailed at Fort Gary by Riel, Including a man named Thomas Scott
  15. Thomas Scott Affair: Outrage in Ontario
    • -Prisoner Scott struck and insulted guards, the church threatened to kill Riel ·
    • seen as a threat·
    • disobedient to a lawful government·
    • Killed in 24 hours, found guilty, executed·
    • Scott's execution cause a major outrage in Ontario·
    • Quebec thought it was the wrong thing to do
  16. Metis bill of rights
    • -Even during the "TSA" was going on, Riel was trying to make a deal with Ottawa
    • -To ensure the government would treat them fairly the MPGOV wrote up the Metis bill of rights
  17. 3 Request
    • - to enter Canada as a province with 4 elected members of Parliament
    • -Have control of own local affairs
    • - French and English schools and Courts
    • -Metis sent this to Ottawa
  18. Ottawa agrees: Manitoba Act
    • -John A Macdonald wanted to resolve the situation peaceful without troops
    • - Ottawa passed "Manitoba Act" in July 1870 to make it a province instead of just a territory
    • -Riel was pleased with the deal and was ready to give control to the Canadian Government
  19. West Coast British Columbia
    • British Columbia had the options to:·
    • Remain a colony of Britain·
    • Join USA·
    • Join Canada
  20. The Dream
    • - John A Macdonald wanted to unite Canada from Atlantic to Pacific
    • -It was widely thought that for confederation to work, and to keep the country strong held together, a railway was needed
    • -Without railways there would be no Canada
  21. The Promise
    -John A Macdonald lured in British Columbia by promising them a railway in at least 10 years-Would be mostly private but cost 25 million to a country of only 3.5 million people
  22. The Pacific Scandal
    • - A rich group of businessmen formed THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY and won the contract to build the railway
    • -This contract and owning the only railway in Canada would make the group a lot of money
    • -However, it was revealed the CPRC gave Macdonald and the Conservatice Government $350,000 during 1872 election
    • - Liberals accused the conservatives of accepting and Macdonald had to resign to the liberal Leader Alexander Mackenzie
  23. Mackenzie's Plan
    • -Mackenzie was not a fan of the railway project. "Just build it little by little as we can afford it"
    • - It was the Liberals that weren't very enthusiastic
    • -Canadians upset liberals and Macdonald was re-elected
  24. Macdonald is Prime Minister again
    • They blasted through granite to make a straight lane for railway
    • Lots of bridges were built, dynamite blowing stuff up, and drains were filled
  25. Chinese Workers
    -To keep cost down, thousands of workers from china were brought in, paid half the regular wage, and often in charge of the most dangerous tasks
  26. Need for Police
    • - Many people on Ruperts Land were drinking, had guns, and were causing problems
    • - No police to enforce laws
    • - Fort Whoop-up was a huge center for illegal things like smuggling and whisky trading
  27. Cypress Hills, NWT
    • - On June 1, 1873 hunters lost horse and blamed aboriginals
    • - Drunken hunters killed tribe
    • - 36 men, women, and kids
  28. The solution
    • - Canadian Gov formed North Western Mounted Police
    • -Their duties were:
    • Keep peace, law and order·
    • Prevent Crime·
    • Catch criminals·
    • Be a lawful presences in the area
  29. Uniform
    • - Chosen red because Canada was still very British
    • -To distinguish the NWMP from the US Calvary's BLUE
  30. The Great March
    • 1874, 300 men were sworn in as Mounties
    • -Colonel Arthur marched his force from Manitoba to Ft. Edmonton and Whoop-up in Alberta
    • - Only for intimidation
  31. Police work begins
    • - Once posts were established, work began
    • - Whiskey and gun traders were run out of the area
  32. Relation with the Aboriginals
    -Mounties made a good positive relation with ABS
  33. Famous Names
    • Colonel George Arthur French·
    • Jerry Potts·
    • Lt. Colonel James Macleod·
    • Superintendent Sam Steele
  34. Colonel French-Top Dog
    • : first commissioner of NWMP
    • : Reputation for being extremely tough, and wanted his troops to be kind
  35. Jerry Potts:
    • :An early guide and interpreter for the Mounties
    • : He was a Metis
    • : Even in fierce snow storms he could find his way
  36. Lt. Colonel James Macleod
    • : Urged his Mounties to be fair, and not jerks.
    • : Great reputation for law and justice
    • : Wanted prisoners brought in alive.
  37. Northwest Rebellion
    The Problem Continues
    • - As the railway continued west, more settlers soon followed
    • - Metis moved further to open was because of many new settlers
    • - But the railway and government surveys kept coming
  38. Riel Returns
    • -Riel is persuaded to come back to Canada to help the Metis
    • - Canada was ignoring the Metis claim to the land, and the Metis were having to have the same success when Manitoba was created
  39. Canada Not So Willing To Cooperate
    • -The government had a police force now, and a railway to bring in troops if necessary
    • -This time, Ottawa had the upper hand
  40. Rebellion Begins: Duck Lake
    • -First attack
    • - Ten Mounties killed eleven injured
    • -Metis ambushed when the Mounties were getting supplies at a fort near Duck Lake